Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures

Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures

Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures has been the
cement and concrete industry’s primary reference on
concrete technology for over 85 years. Since the first
edition was published in the early 1920s, the U.S.
version has been updated 15 times to reflect advances
in concrete technology and to meet the growing needs
of architects, engineers, builders, concrete producers,
concrete technologists, instructors, and students.
This fully revised 15th edition was written to provide
a concise, current reference on concrete, including the
many advances that occurred since the last edition was
published in 2002. The text is backed by over 95 years
of research by the Portland Cement Association. It
reflects the latest information on standards, specifica-
tions, and test methods of ASTM International (ASTM),
the American Association of State Highway and Trans-
portation Officials (AASHTO), and the American Concrete Institute (ACI).
Besides presenting a 30% increase in new information
over the prior edition within the previous chapters,
this edition has added four new chapters on concrete
sustainability, reinforcement, properties of concrete, and durability.

The cement industry is the building block of the nation's
construction industry (Figure 1-3). Few construction
projects are viable without utilizing cement-based prod-
ucts geographically. U.S. cement production is widely
dispersed with the operation of 97 cement plants in 36
states. The top five companies collectively operate around
57% of U.S. clinker capacity with the largest company
representing around 15% of all domestic clinker capacity.
An estimated 80% of U.S. clinker capacity is owned by

companies headquartered outside of the U.S. (PCA 2010).

The majority of all cement shipments are sent to ready
mixed concrete producers (Figure 1-4) (PCA 2010). The
remainder are shipped to manufacturers of concrete
related products, contractors, materials dealers, oil well/
mining/drilling companies, as well as government entities.
The domestic cement industry is regional in nature. The
logistics of shipping cement limits distribution over long
distances. As a result, customers traditionally purchase
cement from local sources. About 97% of U.S. cement is
shipped to customers by truck (Figure 1-5). Barge and rail

account for the remaining distribution modes.

Concrete’s versatility, durability, sustainability, and
economy have made it the world’s most widely used
construction material. The term concrete refers to a
mixture of aggregates, usually sand, and either gravel or
crushed stone, held together by a binder of cementitious
paste. The paste is typically made up of portland cement
and water and may also contain supplementary
cementing materials (SCMs), such as fly ash or slag
cement, and chemical admixtures Understanding the basic fundamentals of concrete is
necessary to produce quality concrete. This publication
covers the materials used in concrete and the essentials
required to design and control concrete mixtures for a
wide variety of structures.

Reinforced concrete construction for high-rise buildings
provides inherent stiffness, mass, and ductility. Occupants
of concrete towers are less likely to perceive building
motions than occupants of comparable tall buildings with
non-concrete structural systems. A major economic con-
sideration in high-rise construction is reducing the floor to
floor height. Using a reinforced concrete flat plate system,
the floor to floor height can be minimized while still
providing high floor to ceiling heights. As a result, con-
crete has become the material of choice for many tall, slender towers.
The first reinforced concrete high-rise was the 16-story
Ingalls Building, completed in Cincinnati in 1903. Greater
building height became possible as concrete strength in-
creased. In the 1950s, 34 MPa (5000 psi) was considered
high strength; by 1990, two high-rise buildings were
constructed in Seattle using concrete with strengths of
up to 131 MPa (19,000 psi). Ultra-high-strength concrete
is now manufactured with strengths in excess of 150 MPa

(21,750 psi).


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