Reynolds’s Reinforced Concrete Designer’s Handbook

Reynolds’s Reinforced Concrete Designer’s Handbook

A structure is an assembly of members each of which, under the
action of imposed loads and deformations, is subjected to
bending or direct force (either tensile or compressive), or to a
combination of bending and direct force. These effects may be
accompanied by shearing forces and sometimes by torsion.
Imposed deformations occur as a result of concrete shrinkage
and creep, changes in temperature and differential settlement.
Behaviour of the structure in the event of fire or accidental
damage, resulting from impact or explosion, may need to be
examined. The conditions of exposure to environmental and
chemical attack also need to be considered.

Design includes selecting a suitable form of construction,
determining the effects of imposed loads and deformations,
and providing members of adequate stiffness and resistance.
The members should be arranged so as to combine efficient
load transmission with ease of construction, consistent with
the intended use of the structure and the nature of the site.
Experience and sound judgement are often more important than
precise calculations in achieving safe and economical structures.
Complex mathematics should not be allowed to confuse a sense
of good engineering. The level of accuracy employed in the
calculations should be consistent throughout the design
process, wherever possible.
Structural design is largely controlled by regulations or codes
but, even within such bounds, the designer needs to exercise
judgement in interpreting the requirements rather than designing
to the minimum allowed by the letter of a clause. In the United
Kingdom for many years, the design of reinforced concrete
structures has been based on the recommendations of British


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