Highways The Location Design Construction and Maintenance of Road Pavements

Highways The Location Design Construction and Maintenance of Road Pavements

Smid Book

Preference :

Everybody travels, whether it be to work, play, shop, do business, or simply visit
people. All foodstuffs and raw materials must be carried from their place of origin to
that of their consumption or adaptation, and manufactured goods must be transported
to the marketplace and the consumer. Historically, people have travelled and goods
have been moved: (1) by road, i.e. by walking and riding, using humans and various
beasts to carry goods or to pull sleds, carts, carriages and wagons, and (since the
late 19th century) using cycles and motor vehicles such as cars, buses and lorries;
(2) by water, i.e. using (since early times) ships and boats on seas, rivers and canals;
(3) by rail, i.e. initially using animals (in the early 19th century) and then steam-,
oil- or electric-powered locomotives to pull passenger carriages and goods wagons;
and (4) by air, i.e. using airships and aeroplanes (in the 20th century).
Whilst the birth of the road is lost in the mists of antiquity, there is no doubt
but that the trails deliberately chosen by early man and his pack animals were the
forerunners of today’s road. As civilization developed and people’s desire for communication
increased, the early trails became pathways and the pathways evolved
into recognized travelways. Many of these early travelways – termed ridgeways – were
located high on hillsides where the underbrush was less dense and walking was easier;
they were also above soft ground in wet valleys and avoided unsafe wooded areas.
The invention of the wheel in Mesopotamia in ca 5000 BC and the subsequent
development of an axle that joined two wheels and enabled heavy loads to be
carried more easily, gave rise to wider travelways with firmer surfacings capable of
carrying concentrated loads, but with less steep connecting routes down to/up from
valleys and fordable streams. Thus trackways evolved/were created along the
contours of lower slopes, i.e. they were sufficiently above the bottoms of valleys to
ensure good drainage but low enough to obviate unnecessary climbing. The trackways
eventually became well-established trade routes along which settlements
developed, and these gave rise to hamlets and villages – some of which, eventually,
became towns and cities.

Content :
  • Road location
  • Subsurface investigations
  • Plans, specifications and contracts
  • Soils for roadworks
  • Materials used in road pavements
  • Soil-stabilized pavements
  • Surface drainage for roads
  • Subsurface moisture control for road pavements
  • Introduction to pavement design
  • Earthworks and unbound bases for pavements
  • Premixed bituminous-bound courses: standard materials
  • Design and construction of hot-mix bituminous surfacings and roadbases
  • Analytical design of flexible pavements
  • Structural maintenance of road pavements

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