Traffic Engineering Third Edition

Traffic Engineering Third Edition 

Traffic engineering is a branch of civil engineering that uses engineering techniques to achieve the safe and efficient movement of people and goods on roadways. It focuses mainly on research for safe and efficient traffic flow, such as road geometry, sidewalks and crosswalks, cycling infrastructure, traffic signs, road surface markings and traffic lights. Traffic engineering deals with the functional part of transportation system, except the infrastructures provided.
This book presents comprehensive and in-depth coverage of traffic engineering. KEY TOPICS It discusses all modern topics in traffic engineering, including design, construction, operation, maintenance, and system. For anyone involved in traffic studies, engineering, analysis, and control and operations.

Typical traffic engineering projects involve designing traffic control device installations and modifications, including traffic signals, signs, and pavement markings. Examples of Engineering Plans include pole engineering analysis and Storm Water Prevention Programs (SWPP).[1] However, traffic engineers also consider traffic safety by investigating locations with high crash rates and developing countermeasures to reduce crashes. Traffic flow management can be short-term (preparing construction traffic control plans, including detour plans for pedestrian and vehicular traffic) or long-term (estimating the impacts of proposed commercial/residential developments on traffic patterns). Increasingly, traffic problems are being addressed by developing systems for intelligent transportation systems, often in conjunction with other engineering disciplines, such as computer engineering and electrical engineering.


 1. Introduction to Traffic Engineering and Its Scope. 

 2. Road User and Vehicle Characteristics.

 3. Roadways and Their Geometric Characteristics.

 4. An Introduction to Traffic Control Devices.

 5. Traffic Steam Characteristics.

 6. Intelligent Transportation Systems.


 7. Statistical Applications in Traffic Engineering.

 8. Volume Studies and Characteristics.

 9. Speed, Travel Time, and Delay Studies.

10. Highway Safety and Accident Studies.

11. Parking Studies and Programs.


12. Capacity Level and Level of Service Analysis for Freeways and Multilane Rural Highways.

13. Turbulence Areas on Freeways and Other Facilities: Weaving, Merging, and Diverging.

14. Two-Lane, Two-Way Rural Highways.

15. Traffic Control for Freeways and Rural Highways.

16. Introduction to Intersection Control.

17. Basic Principles of Intersection Signalization.

18. Fundamentals of Signal Design and Timing.

19. Elements of Intersection Design.

20. Actuated Signal Control and Detection.

21. Analysis of Signalized Intersections.

22. Applications of Signalized Intersection Analysis.

23. Analysis of Unsignalized Intersections.

24. Signal Coordination for Arterials and Networks.

25. Analysis of Arterial Performance.

26. Arterial Planning and Design.

27. Traffic Operations and Planning for Urban Street Networks.


Excel Construction Management Templates

Excel Construction Management Templates

Excel Construction Management Templates are very important for managers as it's
very difficulit to manage construction projects. they Require alot of 
stakeholders, details and documentation. So we provide more
 than 15 free excel construction management templates to download and use them
the templates involve : 

  • Construction Timeline
  • Construction Budget
  • Construction Estimator
  • Bid Tabulation Template
  • Abstract of Bids Template
  • Subcontractor Documentation Tracker
  • Construction Documentation Tracker
  • Daily/Weekly Inspection Report
  • Contractor Progress Payment Template
  • Change Order Request Summary
  • Change Order Log
  • Request for Information Log
  • Residential Remodel Project Timeline
  • Certified Wage & Hour Payroll Form
  • Time & Materials Invoice
  • Project Punchlist
  • Project Closeout Checklist
  • Construction Management with Smartsheet


Unsaturated Soil Mechanics

Unsaturated Soil Mechanics

The principal aim of this book is to provide a thorough grounding in unsat-
urated soil mechanics principles from three fundamental perspectives: ther-
modynamics, mechanics, and hydrology. The book is written to guide a first

course on the subject and is primarily intended for undergraduate seniors,
graduate students, and researchers with backgrounds in the more general fields
of geotechnical engineering, soil science, environmental engineering, and
groundwater hydrology.
In formulating this book, we have maintained the opinion that a first course
in any branch of mechanics should emphasize the fundamental principles that
govern the phenomena of interest. A principles-based approach to learning is
most beneficial to the general reader and is particularly appropriate for the
subject of unsaturated soil mechanics as it remains a young, dynamic, and

rapidly emerging field of research and practice. Our general viewpoint to-
wards the pursuit of understanding is reflected by Thomas Henry Huxley’s

(1825–1895) statement: ‘‘The known is finite, the unknown infinite; intellec-
tually we stand on an islet in the midst of an illimitable ocean of inexplica-
bility. Our business in every generation is to reclaim a little more land.’’ We

hope that this book will provide the necessary background and motivation for

those who desire to explore and reclaim the ocean of unsaturated soil me-
chanics problems that nature and society continue to present.

The history of unsaturated soil mechanics is embedded in the history of hydrology, 
soil mechanics, and soil physics. Engineering problems involving

unsaturated soil span numerous subdisciplines and practices within the general
field of civil engineering. Hydrologists, for example, have long recognized
that modeling of regional or local surface water and groundwater systems and
curring in the near-surface unsaturated soil zone. Quantitative evaluation of

moisture flux at the atmosphere-subsurface boundary requires not only knowl-
edge of the relevant soil and pore water properties but also the predominant

environmental conditions at the soil-atmosphere interface. Unsaturated soil
often comprises cover or barrier materials for landfills and hazardous waste

storage facilities of interest to the geo-environmental community. Contami-
nant transport and leaching processes are often strictly unsaturated fluid trans-
port phenomena, occurring in many cases as multiphase transport problems.

As national and international policy with regard to the health of the natural
environment is becoming increasingly more regulated, recognition of these

types of geo-enviromental issues and development of solutions from an un-
saturated soil mechanics framework is becoming more and more common.

Many of the more traditional geotechnical engineering problems also fall
wholly or partly into the category of unsaturated soil mechanics problems.
Compaction, for example, a classical application involving unsaturated soil,

has been routine practice for improving the mechanical and hydraulic prop-
erties of soil since far before the formation of civil engineering as a formal

discipline in the mid-nineteenth century. Compacted soil comprising the many
earthworks constructed all over the world is most appropriately considered

from an unsaturated soils framework. It has long been recognized that ex-
pansive soils pose a severe threat to civil engineering infrastructure such as

roads, housing, and transportation facilities nationally and internationally. Ex-
pansive soil formations in the United States alone are responsible for billions

of dollars in damage costs each year, an amount exceeding that of all other
natural hazards combined, including earthquakes, floods, fires, and tornados
(Jones and Holtz, 1973). 


Fibers as structural element for the reinforcement of concrete

Fibers as structural element for the reinforcement of concrete

The idea of using a fibrous material to provide tensile strength to a material strong in compression
but brittle, looses itself in the mists of time; in ancient Egypt straw was added to clay mixtures
in order to provide bricks with enhanced flexural resistance, thus providing better handling
properties after the bricks had been dried in the sun.
Other historical cases of fiber reinforcement exist: plaster reinforced with horsehair, or again
with straw in the poorest building conditions, so as to avoid the unsightly occurrence of cracks
due to shrinkage, counter-ceilings made of plaster reinforced through reed canes, cement
conglomerates fiber-reinforced through asbestos, etc.
But the scientific approach to such a problem is definitely more recent.

The presence of fibers having adequate tensile strength, and being homogeneously distributed
within concrete, builds a micro-scaffolding that, on the one side, demonstrates itself being ef-
ficient in counteracting the known phenomenon leading to crack formation due to shrinkage,
and, on the other side, leads the concrete’s ductility(1) to become increasingly relevant with
increasing strength of the fibers. This provides the concrete with a high toughness(2) as well.
As it is known, in the vast majority of currently applied calculation and verification rules, the
concrete’s tensile strength is generally neglected in the calculation route, given concrete’s brittle
behaviour. The use of a fiber-reinforced matrix makes it possible to stabilize tensile properties.
In this way, the tensile strength can be now be exploited as well between other mechanical

properties in the design phase. This highly relevant technical advantage will be reported in de-

tails in chapter 3 of the present publication.

It is evident that all these possible behaviours, or different ductility and toughness levels ac-
quired by the concrete, depend both from the quantity of the present fibers as well as from
their mechanical, and geometrical characteristics.
Considering the influence of the fiber geometry on the behaviour of FRC(3) and of SFRC(4),
although any aspect is relevant, it is the relationship between the fiber length and equivalent
diameter (L/D named aspect ratio or slenderness ratio) which is considered as the most charac-
terising element, since ductility and toughness of a fiber-reinforced concrete depend in large
measure on its value
It is evident that all these possible behaviours, or different ductility and toughness levels ac-
quired by the concrete, depend both from the quantity of the present fibers as well as from

their mechanical, and geometrical characteristics.
Considering the influence of the fiber geometry on the behaviour of FRC(3) and of SFRC(4),
although any aspect is relevant, it is the relationship between the fiber length and equivalent

diameter (L/D named aspect ratio or slenderness ratio) which is considered as the most charac-
terising element, since ductility and toughness of a fiber-reinforced concrete depend in large

measure on its value


Concrete Mix Design, Quality Control and Specification

Concrete Mix Design, Quality Control and Specification

This book has the limited objective of teaching the reader how to design, control, and specify concrete. Although few people currently carry out these operations well, they are relatively easy to learn. However they are analogous to driving a car as opposed to becoming an expert mechanic.
A further objective is to emphasize that the application of more advanced technology to these matters
should reduce rather than increase cost. The selection of an appropriate quality or durability is important, but it has little to do with quality control/assurance. The objective of the latter is to enable attainment of the selected quality at minimum cost.
The realization is dawning that it is essential for concrete to become a fully reliable or ‘zero defects’
material rather than a material of questionable quality which the purchaser must thoroughly test and accept or reject. This is because the incorporation of a single truck of defective concrete in a structure
incorporating 20 000 such truckloads can give rise to costs of investigation, of replacement, and more
importantly of delay, well in excess of $1 000 000. It gives some idea of the resistance to change that this situation, which few would now deny, was pointed out by the author in the 1950s (Day, 1958–9).
If the above contention is accepted, it must give rise to a new set of rules and concepts. We have learned that there is no such thing as an absolute minimum strength. We now have to learn how to ensure that no structurally unacceptable concrete is supplied, i.e. to detect and rectify adverse quality shifts before any actually defective concrete is produced. Concrete cannot reasonably be rejected on the basis of the 28-day strength tests when there may, by then, be another five or six storeys of the structure built on top of it. Control action must be seen as an urgent and highly organized activity in which time is the essence and an hour is a long time.

The author has spent more than 30 years designing, controlling and specifying concrete. In doing so he has found remarkably little assistance from standards and codes of practice. In effect it has been necessary to operate on two planes simultaneously. One of these is the official plane on which one must check for compliance with specifications, codes of practice, etc., and the other is the practical plane on which the satisfactory outcome of the work actually depends. It is the author’s hope that this book will assist in reconciling standard practice with realism.
The assumption is made that the reader has access to at least one com-prehensive work on concrete
technology and little of such standard material is reproduced here. The implication may be noted that little of this material is actually used in the day to day design and control of con-crete. Whilst this is true to a considerable extent, it should be realized that proceeding in the absence of a more comprehensive knowledge of concrete technology can be like walking through a minefield with a map showing only natural features.

There are hundreds of systems of concrete mix design, just as there are hundreds of cures for the common cold. In both cases the question is whether any of them really works. In the case of concrete mix design there is certainly substantial evidence to the contrary. Nearly all systems end by suggesting eye adjustment of a trial mix. Most commercial concrete results from the continued ad hoc modification of existing mixes without any application of formal mix design.
If the purpose of a mix design system is to enable ideal materials to be proportioned so as to produce
good general purpose concrete of the desired strength then it will have very limited value. To be of real value a system must be able to guide the selection of available materials (of whatever quality) and proportion them so as to produce the most economical concrete which is suitable for the desired purpose. It is not particularly essential that the first mix produced has exactly the desired strength (although it may be essential that it exceeds this strength) since it is easy to subsequently adjust cement content. The first essential is that the most advantageous selection of aggregates be made and the second is that the concrete shall have the desired properties in the fresh state.
We are accustomed to categorizing concrete by strength and slump but a further description is necessary. This is currently covered by a verbal description such as ‘pumpable’, ‘structural’, or ‘paving’. What is really needed is a numerical value covering this property, which is essentially the relative sandiness or cohesion of the mix. The author has devised such a parameter, which he calls the Mix Suitability Factor (MSF)


Ribbed Slab Design Spreadsheets to Eurocode

Ribbed Slab Design Spreadsheets to Eurocode

• Ribbed slabs are widely used in many countries. This is attributed to the rapid shattering, ease of construction, and the reduction in the time of erection. This type of slabs or flooring system consists of series of small closed spaced reinforced concrete T-beams. These floors are suitable for building with light live loads.
The advantages of ribbed slab :

  • Quick and simple to install
  • Minimizes the need for skilled labor
  •  Supplied on short lead times
  •  Tailored to any type of site requirements
  •  Saves aggregate, concrete and steel
  •  Speeds construction
  •  Lowering building costs
  •  Reducing the cycle time of building
  •  Maximum control of concrete curing
  • Providing a higher quality floor surface;
  • Achieving longer spans in pile/beam structural
  • slabs and pile numbers may be optimized to limit additional costs
  •  Monolithic poured concrete foundation slabs
  •  Solution for Structural Weight Limits
  • Contributing to GREEN or LEED certified building

In one-way ribbed slab, loads are transferred in one direction, and the main reinforcement is distributed in the same direction of the load. With accurate to temperature and shrinkage,

 minimum of Φ33 bars diameter will be used in both direction and 
crossing each other over the blocks ( practically).I


Design Guide for Composite Highway Bridges

Design Guide for Composite Highway Bridges

Composite construction, using a reinforced concrete slab on top of steel girders, is an
economical and popular form of construction for highway bridges. It can be used over a wide
range of span sizes.
Design Guide for Composite Highway Bridges covers the design of continuous composite
bridges, with both compact and non-compact sections, and simply supported composite
bridges of the ‘slab-on-beam’ form of construction.
The guide assumes that the reader is familiar with the general principles of limit state
design and has some knowledge of structural steelwork. It provides advice on the general
considerations for design, advice on the initial design process and detailed advice on the
verification of structural adequacy in accordance with BS 5400. It concludes some advice on
structural detailing. The determination of design forces throughout the slab is described, key
features relating to slab design are identified, and detailed advice on slab design is given. The
selection of protective treatment and bearings is excluded, being well covered in other texts
This guide includes a set of twelve flow charts that summarise the design process following
the rules in BS 5400, taking into account the significant amendments recently made in the
latest issue of BS 5400–3 Code of Practice for the design of steel bridges.
Three worked examples describe the initial and detailed design aspects for a four-span
bridge, a three-span bridge and for the deck slab of a simply supported bridge. Each example
is presented as a series of calculation sheets, with accompanying commentary and advice
given on facing pages.
Where reference is made to a clause in one of the Parts of BS 5400, the reference is given
in the form ‘3/9.1.2’, which means clause 9.1.2 of BS 5400–3.
References are made in the text to further advice in ‘Guidance Notes’. These are a series of
notes, published by The Steel Construction Institute[4], that give concise advice from the
members of the Steel Bridge Group, a technical group of experienced designers, fabricators
and clients.

The Design Manual for Roads and Bridges (DMRB) comprises a collection of Standards and
Advice Notes issued by the ‘Overseeing Organisations’ [The Highways Agency (for England),
The Scottish Executive Development Department (for Scotland), The National Assembly for
Wales (for Wales) and The Department for Regional Development (for Northern Ireland)].
The collection includes some documents issued before 1992 by the Department of Transport
that are still valid.
In relation to bridges, the documents give guidance to the designer and provide
interpretation and application of BS 5400. They also correct typographical errors in the
Standard and amend it where considered appropriate. A list of the key documents relating to
the design of new bridges is given in Appendix B. Designers should check that they have upto-
date copies when carrying out design.

Specification for Highway Works
The four Overseeing Organisations also issue theManual of Contract Documents for
Highway Works (MCDHW), which comprises six separate Volumes. These documents
provide the basis for documentation for individual contracts, and are supplemented, for each
contract, by project-specific requirements. Of particular relevance to steel bridge construction
are the sections known as ‘Series 1800’ of Volume 1, Specification for Highway Works
(SHW), and Volume 2, Notes for Guidance on the Specification for Highway Works. The
SHW implements BS 5400–6, modifies some of its clauses and provides the framework for
additional project-specific requirements. For guidance on the latter, see SCI’sModel

Appendix 18/1 document.