Gas Turbine Engineering Handbook

Gas Turbine Engineering Handbook

Gas Turbine Engineering Handbook

Preference :

Gas Turbine Engineering Handbook discusses the design, fabrication, installation, operation, and maintenance of gas turbines. The third edition is not only an updating of the technology in gas turbines, which has seen a great leap forward in the 2000s, but also a rewriting of various sections to better answer today's problems in the design, fabrication, installation, operation, and maintenance of gas turbines. The third edition has added a new chapter that examines the case histories of gas turbines from deterioration of the performance of gas turbines to failures encountered in all the major components of the gas turbine. The chapter on Maintenance Techniques has been completely rewritten and updated. The revised chapter deals with Long Term Service Agreements (LTSAs), and special maintenance tables have been added so that you can troubleshoot problems on gas turbines that you may encounter. The new advanced gas turbines have firing temperatures of 2600 ~ (1427 ~ and pressure ratios exceeding 40:1 in aircraft gas turbines, and over 30:1 in industrial turbines. This has led to the rewriting of Chapter 7, to fully understand the operating mechanics of these high pressure ratio axial-flow compressors. The chapter covers in detail the advent of surge, and describes in great detail the different mechanisms of surge, rotating stall, and choke flow conditions in the compressor of the gas turbine. Advances in materials and coatings have spurred this technology, and the new edition has treated this new area in great detail. The emphasis on low NOx emissions from gas turbines has led to the development of a new breed of Dry Low NOx combustors, and their problems are dealt with in depth in this new edition. The third edition deals with an upgrade in the design and maintenance of advanced gas turbines and deals with most of the applicable codes both in the area of performance and mechanical standards. The new edition has been written with the experienced engineer in mind who is working in power plants, and in petrochemical and offshore installations. This edition should help him or her understand more clearly problems encountered in the field, and how to prevent them.

The use of gas turbines in the petrochemical, power generation, and offshore industries has mushroomed in the past few years. The power industry in the past ten years has embraced the combined cycle power plants, and the new high efficiency gas turbines are at the center of this growth segment of the industry. However, due to the spiraling costs of natural gas, many of these plants designed for base load service have been cycled on a daily basis from part loads of 50% to full load, and in many cases have had to be shutdown on weekends. The new maintenance chapters, with their case histories, should be of great assistance to the engineers in the field who have to operate their plant at other than design conditions of base loaded operation. Investigation of operating these plants on other fuels is also handled in this edition 

Gas Turbine Engineering Handbook

Content :
  • An Overview of Gas Turbines
  • Theoretical and Actual Cycle Analysis
  • Compressor and Turbine Performance Characteristics
  • Performance and Mechanical Standards
  • Rotor Dynamics
  • Centrifugal Compressors
  • Axial-Flow Compressors
  • Radial-Inflow Turbines
  • Axial-Flow Turbines
  • Combustors
  • Materials
  • Fuels
  • Bearings and Seals
  • Gears

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Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design

Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design

Richard G. Budynas,  J. Keith Nisbett

Preference :

This text is intended for students beginning the study of mechanical engineering
design. The focus is on blending fundamental development of concepts with practical
specification of components. Students of this text should find that it inherently
directs them into familiarity with both the basis for decisions and the standards of
industrial components. For this reason, as students transition to practicing engineers,
they will find that this text is indispensable as a reference text. The objectives of the
text are to:

• Cover the basics of machine design, including the design process, engineering
mechanics and materials, failure prevention under static and variable loading, and
characteristics of the principal types of mechanical elements
• Offer a practical approach to the subject through a wide range of real-world applica-
tions and examples
• Encourage readers to link design and analysis
• Encourage readers to link fundamental concepts with practical component specification.

New and revised end-of-chapter problems. This edition includes 1017 end-of-
chapter problems, a 43 percent increase from the previous edition. Of these prob-
lems, 671 are new or revised, providing a fresh slate of problems that do not have
years of previous circulation. Particular attention has been given to adding
problems that provide more practice with the fundamental concepts. With an eye
toward both the instructor and the students, the problems assist in the process of
acquiring knowledge and practice. Multiple problems with variations are available
for the basic concepts, allowing for extra practice and for a rotation of similar
problems between semesters.

Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design

Content :
  • Introduction to Mechanical Engineering Design
  • Materials
  • Load and Stress Analysis
  • Deflection and Stiffness
  • Failure Prevention
  • Failures Resulting from Static Loading 
  • Fatigue Failure Resulting from Variable Loading
  • Design of Mechanical Elements
  • Shafts and Shaft Components
  • Screws, Fasteners, and the Design of Nonpermanent Joints
  • Welding, Bonding, and the Design of Permanent Joints 
  • Mechanical Springs
  • Rolling-Contact Bearings
  • Lubrication and Journal Bearings
  • Gears—General 
  • Spur and Helical Gears
  • Bevel and Worm Gears
  • Clutches, Brakes, Couplings, and Flywheels
  • Flexible Mechanical Elements
  • Power Transmission Case Study
  • Finite-Element Analysis
  • Statistical Considerations

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Handbook of Diesel Engines

Handbook of Diesel Engines

Klaus Mollenhauer,  Helmut Tschoeke

Preference :

This machine is destined to completely revolutionize engine engineering and replace everything that exists.(From Rudolf Diesel’s letter of October 2, 1892 to the publisher Julius Springer.)
Although Diesel’s stated goal has never been fully achievable of course, the diesel engine indeed revolutionized drive systems. This handbook documents the
current state of diesel engine engineering and technology. The impetus to publish a Handbook of Diesel Engines grew out of ruminations on Rudolf Diesel’s transformation of his idea for a rational heat engine into reality more than 100 years ago. Once the patent was filed in 1892 and work on his engine commenced the following year, Rudolf Diesel waited another 4 years until the Association of German Engineers provided him a platform to present his engine to the public at its convention in Kassel on June 16, 1897. The engine came to bear the name of its ingenious inventor soon thereafter.

The editors and publisher intend this English edition of the handbook to furnish readers outside 
German-speaking regions a scholarly and practical presentation of the current state of the diesel engine and its large range of applications. The handbook has not only been conceived for diesel experts but also ‘‘diesel laypersons’’ with prior knowledge of engineering or at least an interest in technology. Furthermore, it is intended to benefit students desiring a firsthand comprehensive and sound overview of diesel engine engineering and technology and its state of development.

Handbook of Diesel Engines

Content :

  • History and Fundamental Principles of the Diesel Engine 
  • Gas Exchange and Supercharging
  • Diesel Engine Combustion
  • Fuels
  • Fuel Injection Systems
  • Fuel Injection System Control Systems
  • Engine Component Loading
  • Crankshaft Assembly Design, Mechanics and Loading
  • Engine Cooling
  • Materials and Their Selection
  • Lubricants and the Lubrication System
  • Start and Ignition Assist Systems
  • Intake and Exhaust Systems
  • Exhaust Heat Recovery
  • Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions
  • Vehicle Diesel Engines
  • Industrial and Marine Engines
  • Standards and Guidelines for Internal Combustion Engines

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Design Engineer’s Handbook

Design Engineer’s Handbook

Preference :
Student design engineers often require a "cookbook" approach to solving certain problems in mechanical engineering. With this focus on providing simplified information that is easy to retrieve, retired mechanical design engineer Keith L. Richards has written Design Engineer’s Handbook.

This book conveys the author’s insights from his decades of experience in fields ranging from machine tools to aerospace. Sharing the vast knowledge and experience that has served him well in his own career, this book is specifically aimed at the student design engineer who has left full- or part-time academic studies and requires a handy reference handbook to use in practice. Full of material often left out of many academic references, this book includes important in-depth coverage of key topics, such as:

Effects of fatigue and fracture in catastrophic failures
Lugs and shear pins
Helical compression springs
Thick-walled or compound cylinders
Cam and follower design
Beams and torsion
Limits and fits and gear systems
Use of Mohr’s circle in both analytical and experimental stress analysis

This guide has been written not to replace established primary reference books but to provide a secondary handbook that gives student designers additional guidance. Helping readers determine the most efficiently designed and cost-effective solutions to a variety of engineering problems, this book offers a wealth of tables, graphs, and detailed design examples that will benefit new mechanical engineers from all walks.

Contents :
Chapter one: Beams
Chapter 2: Torsion of Solid Sections

Chapter 3: Design and Analysis of Lugs and Shear Pins
Chapter 4: Mechanical Fasteners

Chapter 5: Limits and Fits
Chapter 6: Thick Cylinders

Chapter 7: Compound Cylinders
Chapter 8: The Design and Analysis of Helical Compression Springs Manufactured from

Round Wire
Chapter 9: Introduction to Analytical Stress Analysis and the Use of the Mohr Circle
Chapter 10: Introduction to Cams and Followers

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Sheet Piling Handbook 3rd Edition

Sheet Piling Handbook 3rd Edition 

The history of sheet piling goes back to the beginning of the last century. The book Ein Produkt
erobert die Welt – 100 Jahre Stahlspundwand aus Dortmund (A product conquers the world –
100 years of sheet pile walls from Dortmund) describes the success story of sheet piling. The
story is closely linked with Tryggve Larssen, government building surveyor in Bremen, who
invented the sheet pile wall made from rolled sections with a channel-shaped cross-section. In
1902 the so-called LARSSEN sheet piles – known as such from this date onwards – were used
as a waterfront structure at Hohentorshafen in Bremen – and are still doing their job to this day!
Since then, LARSSEN sheet piles have been manufactured in the rolling mill of HOESCH
Spundwand und Profil GmbH.
Over the years, ongoing developments in steel grades, section shapes and driving techniques

have led to a wide range of applications for sheet piling. The applications include securing ex-
cavations, waterfront structures, foundations, bridge abutments, noise abatement walls, highway

structures, cuttings, landfill and contaminated ground enclosures, and flood protection schemes.
The main engineering advantages of sheet pile walls over other types of wall are:
• the extremely favourable ratio of steel cross-section to moment of resistance,
• their suitability for almost all soil types,
• their suitability for use in water,
• the fast progress on site,
• the ability to carry loads immediately,
• the option of extracting and reusing the sections,
• their easy combination with other rolled sections,
• the option of staggered embedment depths,
• the low water permeability, if necessary using sealed interlocks, and
• there is no need for excavations.

The driving work calls for a certain amount of play in the interlocks and so these joints be-
tween the sheet piles are not watertight. Owing to their convoluted form, however, water seep-
ing through the joint does have to negotiate a relatively long path. Ultra-fine particles in the

soil accumulate in the interlocks over time, which results in a “self-sealing” effect, which is
augmented by corrosion. According to EAU 2004 section (R 117), in walls standing
in water this natural sealing process can be assisted by installing environmentally compatible
synthetic seals. If a sheet pile wall is required to be especially watertight, the interlocks can be
filled with a permanently plastic compound or fitted with a preformed polyurethane interlock
seal. The materials used exhibit high ageing and weathering resistance plus good resistance to

water, seawater and, if necessary, acids and alkalis. Polyurethane interlock seals are factory-
fitted to the interlocks of multiple piles and the joints threaded on site are sealed with further

preformed polyurethane seals.

Interlocks can be sealed with bituminous materials to achieve a watertight joint. Such mater-
ials can be applied in the works or on site. The watertightness is achieved according to the

displacement principle: excess sealant is forced out of the interlock when threading the next


Beam Column Design Spreadsheet to ACI-318 and ACI-350

Beam Column Design Spreadsheet to ACI-318 and ACI-350

Beam column design spreadsheet evaluates concrete members carrying both flexure and axial load using thrust-moment, or P-M, interaction diagrams generated per ACI 318 and ACI 350. Standard axial/flexural provisions, Ch 10, are considered.  ACI 350 durability factor is used to factor down the flexural and axial capacities instead of factoring up the factored loads. The end result is an "inner curve" that governs for ACI 350 capacity in the tension-controlled and transition zones.

- Only one layer of steel each for top face reinforcing and bottom face reinforcing
- Ties are provided for confinement (not spirals)

-XLC formulae and peer review provide verification of intended functionality.
-Cross-check against software solution (SP Column)

-ACI 318-11
-ACI 350-06


AutoCAD 2016 For Beginners

AutoCAD 2016 For Beginners

CAD is an abbreviation for Computer-Aided Design. It is the process used to design and
draft components on your computer. This process includes creating designs and drawings
of the product or system. AutoCAD is a CAD software package developed and marketed
by Autodesk Inc. It can be used to create two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional
(3D) models of products. These models can be transferred to other computer programs for
further analysis and testing. In addition, you can convert these computer models into
numerical data. This numerical data can be used in manufacturing equipment such as
machining centers, lathes, mills, or rapid prototyping machines to manufacture the
product.AutoCAD is one of the first CAD software packages. It was introduced in the year 1982.
Since that time, it has become the industry leader among all CAD products. It is the most
widely used CAD software. The commands and concepts introduced by AutoCAD are
utilized by other systems. As a student, learning AutoCAD provides you with a greater
advantage as compared to any other CAD software.

The AutoCAD 2016 for Beginners book provides a learn-by-doing approach for users to
learn AutoCAD. It is written for students and engineers who are interested to learn
AutoCAD 2016 for creating designs and drawing of components or anyone who
communicates through technical drawings as part of their work. The topics covered in this
book are as follows:
Chapter 1, “Introduction to AutoCAD 2016”, gives an introduction to AutoCAD.
The user interface and terminology are discussed in this chapter.

Chapter 2, “Drawing Basics”, explores the basic drawing tools in AutoCAD. You
will create simple drawings using the drawing tools.

Chapter 3, “Drawing Aids”, explores the drawing settings that will assist you in

creating drawings.
Chapter 4, “Editing Tools”, covers the tools required to modify drawing objects or
create new objects using the existing ones.

Chapter 5, “Multi View Drawings”, teaches you to create multi view drawings
standard projection techniques.

Chapter 6, “Dimensions and Annotations”, teaches you to apply dimensions and
annotations to a drawing.

Chapter 7, “Parametric Tools”, teaches you to create parametric drawings.
Parametric drawings are created by using the logical operations and parameters that

control the shape and size of a drawing.
Chapter 8, “Section Views”, teaches you to create section views of a component. A
section view is the inside view of a component when it is sliced.

Chapter 9, “Blocks, Attributes and Xrefs”, teaches you to create Blocks, Attributes
and Xrefs. Blocks are group of objects in a drawing that can be reused. Attributes
are notes, or values related to an object. Xrefs are drawing files attached to another

Chapter 10, “Layouts and Annotative Objects”, teaches you create layouts and
annotative objects. Layouts are the digital counterparts of physical drawing sheets.
Annotative objects are dimensions, notes and so on which their sizes with respect to

drawing scale.
Chapter 11, “Templates and Plotting”, teaches you create drawing templates and
plot drawings.

Chapter 12, “3D Modeling Basics”, explores the basic tools to create 3D models.

Chapter 13, “Solid Editing Tools”, covers the tools required to edit solid models and
create new objects by using the existing ones.

Chapter 14, “Creating Architectural Drawings”, introduces you to architectural

design in AutoCAD. You will design a floor plan and add dimensions to it.


Traffic Engineering Third Edition

Traffic Engineering Third Edition 

Traffic engineering is a branch of civil engineering that uses engineering techniques to achieve the safe and efficient movement of people and goods on roadways. It focuses mainly on research for safe and efficient traffic flow, such as road geometry, sidewalks and crosswalks, cycling infrastructure, traffic signs, road surface markings and traffic lights. Traffic engineering deals with the functional part of transportation system, except the infrastructures provided.
This book presents comprehensive and in-depth coverage of traffic engineering. KEY TOPICS It discusses all modern topics in traffic engineering, including design, construction, operation, maintenance, and system. For anyone involved in traffic studies, engineering, analysis, and control and operations.

Typical traffic engineering projects involve designing traffic control device installations and modifications, including traffic signals, signs, and pavement markings. Examples of Engineering Plans include pole engineering analysis and Storm Water Prevention Programs (SWPP).[1] However, traffic engineers also consider traffic safety by investigating locations with high crash rates and developing countermeasures to reduce crashes. Traffic flow management can be short-term (preparing construction traffic control plans, including detour plans for pedestrian and vehicular traffic) or long-term (estimating the impacts of proposed commercial/residential developments on traffic patterns). Increasingly, traffic problems are being addressed by developing systems for intelligent transportation systems, often in conjunction with other engineering disciplines, such as computer engineering and electrical engineering.


 1. Introduction to Traffic Engineering and Its Scope. 

 2. Road User and Vehicle Characteristics.

 3. Roadways and Their Geometric Characteristics.

 4. An Introduction to Traffic Control Devices.

 5. Traffic Steam Characteristics.

 6. Intelligent Transportation Systems.


 7. Statistical Applications in Traffic Engineering.

 8. Volume Studies and Characteristics.

 9. Speed, Travel Time, and Delay Studies.

10. Highway Safety and Accident Studies.

11. Parking Studies and Programs.


12. Capacity Level and Level of Service Analysis for Freeways and Multilane Rural Highways.

13. Turbulence Areas on Freeways and Other Facilities: Weaving, Merging, and Diverging.

14. Two-Lane, Two-Way Rural Highways.

15. Traffic Control for Freeways and Rural Highways.

16. Introduction to Intersection Control.

17. Basic Principles of Intersection Signalization.

18. Fundamentals of Signal Design and Timing.

19. Elements of Intersection Design.

20. Actuated Signal Control and Detection.

21. Analysis of Signalized Intersections.

22. Applications of Signalized Intersection Analysis.

23. Analysis of Unsignalized Intersections.

24. Signal Coordination for Arterials and Networks.

25. Analysis of Arterial Performance.

26. Arterial Planning and Design.

27. Traffic Operations and Planning for Urban Street Networks.


Excel Construction Management Templates

Excel Construction Management Templates

Excel Construction Management Templates are very important for managers as it's
very difficulit to manage construction projects. they Require alot of 
stakeholders, details and documentation. So we provide more
 than 15 free excel construction management templates to download and use them
the templates involve : 

  • Construction Timeline
  • Construction Budget
  • Construction Estimator
  • Bid Tabulation Template
  • Abstract of Bids Template
  • Subcontractor Documentation Tracker
  • Construction Documentation Tracker
  • Daily/Weekly Inspection Report
  • Contractor Progress Payment Template
  • Change Order Request Summary
  • Change Order Log
  • Request for Information Log
  • Residential Remodel Project Timeline
  • Certified Wage & Hour Payroll Form
  • Time & Materials Invoice
  • Project Punchlist
  • Project Closeout Checklist
  • Construction Management with Smartsheet


Unsaturated Soil Mechanics

Unsaturated Soil Mechanics

The principal aim of this book is to provide a thorough grounding in unsat-
urated soil mechanics principles from three fundamental perspectives: ther-
modynamics, mechanics, and hydrology. The book is written to guide a first

course on the subject and is primarily intended for undergraduate seniors,
graduate students, and researchers with backgrounds in the more general fields
of geotechnical engineering, soil science, environmental engineering, and
groundwater hydrology.
In formulating this book, we have maintained the opinion that a first course
in any branch of mechanics should emphasize the fundamental principles that
govern the phenomena of interest. A principles-based approach to learning is
most beneficial to the general reader and is particularly appropriate for the
subject of unsaturated soil mechanics as it remains a young, dynamic, and

rapidly emerging field of research and practice. Our general viewpoint to-
wards the pursuit of understanding is reflected by Thomas Henry Huxley’s

(1825–1895) statement: ‘‘The known is finite, the unknown infinite; intellec-
tually we stand on an islet in the midst of an illimitable ocean of inexplica-
bility. Our business in every generation is to reclaim a little more land.’’ We

hope that this book will provide the necessary background and motivation for

those who desire to explore and reclaim the ocean of unsaturated soil me-
chanics problems that nature and society continue to present.

The history of unsaturated soil mechanics is embedded in the history of hydrology, 
soil mechanics, and soil physics. Engineering problems involving

unsaturated soil span numerous subdisciplines and practices within the general
field of civil engineering. Hydrologists, for example, have long recognized
that modeling of regional or local surface water and groundwater systems and
curring in the near-surface unsaturated soil zone. Quantitative evaluation of

moisture flux at the atmosphere-subsurface boundary requires not only knowl-
edge of the relevant soil and pore water properties but also the predominant

environmental conditions at the soil-atmosphere interface. Unsaturated soil
often comprises cover or barrier materials for landfills and hazardous waste

storage facilities of interest to the geo-environmental community. Contami-
nant transport and leaching processes are often strictly unsaturated fluid trans-
port phenomena, occurring in many cases as multiphase transport problems.

As national and international policy with regard to the health of the natural
environment is becoming increasingly more regulated, recognition of these

types of geo-enviromental issues and development of solutions from an un-
saturated soil mechanics framework is becoming more and more common.

Many of the more traditional geotechnical engineering problems also fall
wholly or partly into the category of unsaturated soil mechanics problems.
Compaction, for example, a classical application involving unsaturated soil,

has been routine practice for improving the mechanical and hydraulic prop-
erties of soil since far before the formation of civil engineering as a formal

discipline in the mid-nineteenth century. Compacted soil comprising the many
earthworks constructed all over the world is most appropriately considered

from an unsaturated soils framework. It has long been recognized that ex-
pansive soils pose a severe threat to civil engineering infrastructure such as

roads, housing, and transportation facilities nationally and internationally. Ex-
pansive soil formations in the United States alone are responsible for billions

of dollars in damage costs each year, an amount exceeding that of all other
natural hazards combined, including earthquakes, floods, fires, and tornados
(Jones and Holtz, 1973). 


Fibers as structural element for the reinforcement of concrete

Fibers as structural element for the reinforcement of concrete

The idea of using a fibrous material to provide tensile strength to a material strong in compression
but brittle, looses itself in the mists of time; in ancient Egypt straw was added to clay mixtures
in order to provide bricks with enhanced flexural resistance, thus providing better handling
properties after the bricks had been dried in the sun.
Other historical cases of fiber reinforcement exist: plaster reinforced with horsehair, or again
with straw in the poorest building conditions, so as to avoid the unsightly occurrence of cracks
due to shrinkage, counter-ceilings made of plaster reinforced through reed canes, cement
conglomerates fiber-reinforced through asbestos, etc.
But the scientific approach to such a problem is definitely more recent.

The presence of fibers having adequate tensile strength, and being homogeneously distributed
within concrete, builds a micro-scaffolding that, on the one side, demonstrates itself being ef-
ficient in counteracting the known phenomenon leading to crack formation due to shrinkage,
and, on the other side, leads the concrete’s ductility(1) to become increasingly relevant with
increasing strength of the fibers. This provides the concrete with a high toughness(2) as well.
As it is known, in the vast majority of currently applied calculation and verification rules, the
concrete’s tensile strength is generally neglected in the calculation route, given concrete’s brittle
behaviour. The use of a fiber-reinforced matrix makes it possible to stabilize tensile properties.
In this way, the tensile strength can be now be exploited as well between other mechanical

properties in the design phase. This highly relevant technical advantage will be reported in de-

tails in chapter 3 of the present publication.

It is evident that all these possible behaviours, or different ductility and toughness levels ac-
quired by the concrete, depend both from the quantity of the present fibers as well as from
their mechanical, and geometrical characteristics.
Considering the influence of the fiber geometry on the behaviour of FRC(3) and of SFRC(4),
although any aspect is relevant, it is the relationship between the fiber length and equivalent
diameter (L/D named aspect ratio or slenderness ratio) which is considered as the most charac-
terising element, since ductility and toughness of a fiber-reinforced concrete depend in large
measure on its value
It is evident that all these possible behaviours, or different ductility and toughness levels ac-
quired by the concrete, depend both from the quantity of the present fibers as well as from

their mechanical, and geometrical characteristics.
Considering the influence of the fiber geometry on the behaviour of FRC(3) and of SFRC(4),
although any aspect is relevant, it is the relationship between the fiber length and equivalent

diameter (L/D named aspect ratio or slenderness ratio) which is considered as the most charac-
terising element, since ductility and toughness of a fiber-reinforced concrete depend in large

measure on its value


Concrete Mix Design, Quality Control and Specification

Concrete Mix Design, Quality Control and Specification

This book has the limited objective of teaching the reader how to design, control, and specify concrete. Although few people currently carry out these operations well, they are relatively easy to learn. However they are analogous to driving a car as opposed to becoming an expert mechanic.
A further objective is to emphasize that the application of more advanced technology to these matters
should reduce rather than increase cost. The selection of an appropriate quality or durability is important, but it has little to do with quality control/assurance. The objective of the latter is to enable attainment of the selected quality at minimum cost.
The realization is dawning that it is essential for concrete to become a fully reliable or ‘zero defects’
material rather than a material of questionable quality which the purchaser must thoroughly test and accept or reject. This is because the incorporation of a single truck of defective concrete in a structure
incorporating 20 000 such truckloads can give rise to costs of investigation, of replacement, and more
importantly of delay, well in excess of $1 000 000. It gives some idea of the resistance to change that this situation, which few would now deny, was pointed out by the author in the 1950s (Day, 1958–9).
If the above contention is accepted, it must give rise to a new set of rules and concepts. We have learned that there is no such thing as an absolute minimum strength. We now have to learn how to ensure that no structurally unacceptable concrete is supplied, i.e. to detect and rectify adverse quality shifts before any actually defective concrete is produced. Concrete cannot reasonably be rejected on the basis of the 28-day strength tests when there may, by then, be another five or six storeys of the structure built on top of it. Control action must be seen as an urgent and highly organized activity in which time is the essence and an hour is a long time.

The author has spent more than 30 years designing, controlling and specifying concrete. In doing so he has found remarkably little assistance from standards and codes of practice. In effect it has been necessary to operate on two planes simultaneously. One of these is the official plane on which one must check for compliance with specifications, codes of practice, etc., and the other is the practical plane on which the satisfactory outcome of the work actually depends. It is the author’s hope that this book will assist in reconciling standard practice with realism.
The assumption is made that the reader has access to at least one com-prehensive work on concrete
technology and little of such standard material is reproduced here. The implication may be noted that little of this material is actually used in the day to day design and control of con-crete. Whilst this is true to a considerable extent, it should be realized that proceeding in the absence of a more comprehensive knowledge of concrete technology can be like walking through a minefield with a map showing only natural features.

There are hundreds of systems of concrete mix design, just as there are hundreds of cures for the common cold. In both cases the question is whether any of them really works. In the case of concrete mix design there is certainly substantial evidence to the contrary. Nearly all systems end by suggesting eye adjustment of a trial mix. Most commercial concrete results from the continued ad hoc modification of existing mixes without any application of formal mix design.
If the purpose of a mix design system is to enable ideal materials to be proportioned so as to produce
good general purpose concrete of the desired strength then it will have very limited value. To be of real value a system must be able to guide the selection of available materials (of whatever quality) and proportion them so as to produce the most economical concrete which is suitable for the desired purpose. It is not particularly essential that the first mix produced has exactly the desired strength (although it may be essential that it exceeds this strength) since it is easy to subsequently adjust cement content. The first essential is that the most advantageous selection of aggregates be made and the second is that the concrete shall have the desired properties in the fresh state.
We are accustomed to categorizing concrete by strength and slump but a further description is necessary. This is currently covered by a verbal description such as ‘pumpable’, ‘structural’, or ‘paving’. What is really needed is a numerical value covering this property, which is essentially the relative sandiness or cohesion of the mix. The author has devised such a parameter, which he calls the Mix Suitability Factor (MSF)


Ribbed Slab Design Spreadsheets to Eurocode

Ribbed Slab Design Spreadsheets to Eurocode

• Ribbed slabs are widely used in many countries. This is attributed to the rapid shattering, ease of construction, and the reduction in the time of erection. This type of slabs or flooring system consists of series of small closed spaced reinforced concrete T-beams. These floors are suitable for building with light live loads.
The advantages of ribbed slab :

  • Quick and simple to install
  • Minimizes the need for skilled labor
  •  Supplied on short lead times
  •  Tailored to any type of site requirements
  •  Saves aggregate, concrete and steel
  •  Speeds construction
  •  Lowering building costs
  •  Reducing the cycle time of building
  •  Maximum control of concrete curing
  • Providing a higher quality floor surface;
  • Achieving longer spans in pile/beam structural
  • slabs and pile numbers may be optimized to limit additional costs
  •  Monolithic poured concrete foundation slabs
  •  Solution for Structural Weight Limits
  • Contributing to GREEN or LEED certified building

In one-way ribbed slab, loads are transferred in one direction, and the main reinforcement is distributed in the same direction of the load. With accurate to temperature and shrinkage,

 minimum of Φ33 bars diameter will be used in both direction and 
crossing each other over the blocks ( practically).I


Design Guide for Composite Highway Bridges

Design Guide for Composite Highway Bridges

Composite construction, using a reinforced concrete slab on top of steel girders, is an
economical and popular form of construction for highway bridges. It can be used over a wide
range of span sizes.
Design Guide for Composite Highway Bridges covers the design of continuous composite
bridges, with both compact and non-compact sections, and simply supported composite
bridges of the ‘slab-on-beam’ form of construction.
The guide assumes that the reader is familiar with the general principles of limit state
design and has some knowledge of structural steelwork. It provides advice on the general
considerations for design, advice on the initial design process and detailed advice on the
verification of structural adequacy in accordance with BS 5400. It concludes some advice on
structural detailing. The determination of design forces throughout the slab is described, key
features relating to slab design are identified, and detailed advice on slab design is given. The
selection of protective treatment and bearings is excluded, being well covered in other texts
This guide includes a set of twelve flow charts that summarise the design process following
the rules in BS 5400, taking into account the significant amendments recently made in the
latest issue of BS 5400–3 Code of Practice for the design of steel bridges.
Three worked examples describe the initial and detailed design aspects for a four-span
bridge, a three-span bridge and for the deck slab of a simply supported bridge. Each example
is presented as a series of calculation sheets, with accompanying commentary and advice
given on facing pages.
Where reference is made to a clause in one of the Parts of BS 5400, the reference is given
in the form ‘3/9.1.2’, which means clause 9.1.2 of BS 5400–3.
References are made in the text to further advice in ‘Guidance Notes’. These are a series of
notes, published by The Steel Construction Institute[4], that give concise advice from the
members of the Steel Bridge Group, a technical group of experienced designers, fabricators
and clients.

The Design Manual for Roads and Bridges (DMRB) comprises a collection of Standards and
Advice Notes issued by the ‘Overseeing Organisations’ [The Highways Agency (for England),
The Scottish Executive Development Department (for Scotland), The National Assembly for
Wales (for Wales) and The Department for Regional Development (for Northern Ireland)].
The collection includes some documents issued before 1992 by the Department of Transport
that are still valid.
In relation to bridges, the documents give guidance to the designer and provide
interpretation and application of BS 5400. They also correct typographical errors in the
Standard and amend it where considered appropriate. A list of the key documents relating to
the design of new bridges is given in Appendix B. Designers should check that they have upto-
date copies when carrying out design.

Specification for Highway Works
The four Overseeing Organisations also issue theManual of Contract Documents for
Highway Works (MCDHW), which comprises six separate Volumes. These documents
provide the basis for documentation for individual contracts, and are supplemented, for each
contract, by project-specific requirements. Of particular relevance to steel bridge construction
are the sections known as ‘Series 1800’ of Volume 1, Specification for Highway Works
(SHW), and Volume 2, Notes for Guidance on the Specification for Highway Works. The
SHW implements BS 5400–6, modifies some of its clauses and provides the framework for
additional project-specific requirements. For guidance on the latter, see SCI’sModel

Appendix 18/1 document.


Civil Engineering Materials Fifth Edition

Civil Engineering Materials Fifth Edition

The importance of an understanding of the materials used in civil engineering and
building projects is widely recognised, and this is reflected by the increasing
emphasis being placed on the teaching of material properties at undergraduate
level. This introductory textbook on materials satisfies a need for a single book
covering the principal materials used in civil engineering and building works.
The aim has been to provide students with an authoritative text which will also
serve as a valuable source of reference in their subsequent careers. In this fifth edition,
with three new contributors, the Parts on Metals, Timber and Bituminous
Materials have been rewritten, and all other Parts have been extensively revised to
maintain an up-to-date coverage of all materials. The fundamental properties of
soils continue to be covered in greater depth than usual, in recognition of the
importance of soils as construction materials, and an additional chapter has been
included to assist the reader in the transition from the study of soils as a material
to the related topic of soil mechanics. Extensive references to all relevant British
and other Standards are made throughout the book.
The treatment of material properties here is suitable for students studying for a
degree or equivalent qualification in civil engineering, building technology, architecture
and other related disciplines. The particular point in a course at which the
study of civil engineering and building materials is introduced will depend on the
course structure of the individual educational institution but would generally be
during the first two years of a three or four year course. Similarly, the extent of
further formal study of materials depends on the emphasis and structure of the
course within a particular educational institution. However, it is not envisaged that
further formal study of the basic material properties of metals, timber, concrete,
polymer materials and bricks and blocks will be required, although the application
of these materials within the general context of analysis and design might well
continue throughout the remainder of a course. Further formal study of soils might
normally be expected to continue, for civil engineering students, within the context
of soil mechanics, with further formal study of bituminous materials only
where highway materials are studied in later years. In this context, readers should
recognise the need for continued study, whether this be of an informal or formal
nature, throughout their subsequent careers if they are to ma

An understanding of the properties of materials is essential in both the design and
construction phases of any civil engineering or building project if this is to prove
satisfactory for its intended purpose. For the student reader it is believed that a few
introductory remarks, in this context, might make the study of materials more
meaningful in itself, rather than merely being a part of a required course of study.
Civil engineering and building projects include roads, railways, bridges, tunnels,
dams, culverts, water and waste-water treatment plants, water distribution
and drainage systems, coastal protection works, harbours, power stations, airports,
industrial complexes and a wide range of building structures for residential, commercial,
sports and leisure purposes. During the initial planning and design stages
of a project the principal factors upon which any subsequent decision to proceed
will be based include its economic viability and sociological and environmental
During this initial or conceptual design stage, consideration is given to possible
alternative locations and/or layouts of the associated works and to a preliminary
assessment of suitable construction materials.
For building structures, alternative layouts and structural forms are studied
together with the suitability of different materials for use in the structural elements
for each of these. The decision as to which structural form and choice of materials
are the most appropriate depends on a number of factors including, but not limited
to, the cost, physical properties, durability and availability of materials and
the ease and speed of construction. All of these affect the first cost (of construction)
and/or the subsequent costs (of maintenance) during the design life of the
structure, both of these being important considerations when assessing the economic
viability of any project. It should be noted that the term choice of materials
is used here to mean the choice of not only the generic names of materials (steel,
concrete, aluminium, polymer, timber, brick, etc.) but also their specific type,
composition and/or performance acceptance criteria.