## Earthwork Calculation Excel Sheet

Earthworks can be described as “the disturbance of land surfaces by blading, contouring, ripping, moving, removing, placing or replacing soil or earth, or by the excavation, or by cutting or filling operations”. Soil Disturbance – The disturbance of land surfaces by any means including blading, blasting, contouring, cutting of batters, excavation, ripping, root raking, excludes normal maintenance of legally established structures, roads, tracks, and railway lines. The definition also excludes those activities that are identified as vegetation clearance activities.

In construction, the most important and appropriate part is reinforced concrete in comparison with all other components that exist in this sector. In this section, we are going to provide a newly designed excel sheet that is very much required to perform a design of the reinforced concrete staircase. This spreadsheet provides RCC Stair Design
with very simple steps

This spreadsheet performs a design analysis on a simply supported beam with torsional loading for a W10X54 steel beam (as defined by the AISC Steel Shapes Database). The application follows the design code and equations in AISC

The Steel Beam module does not permit biaxial loading at the present time, so there are two potential approaches to this loading scheme:
One option is to do two separate Steel Beam runs.  One run would apply the gravity loads to the beam with the beam oriented “web vertical”.  The other run would apply the wind loads to the beam with the beam oriented “web horizontal”.  This would require that the user manually combine the results of the two runs using engineering judgment to come up with a final result.

## Reinforced Flat Slab Design Excel Sheet

Flat slab system is an important division of concrete floor system. A civil engineer must know all the aspects regarding the flat floor system. Here, we have tried to gather various reading materials available in the web about flat slab floor system in one place. These materials are originally located at different websites. A civil engineer should study these lectures and materials for structural engineering acumen.

A flat slab is a reinforced concrete slab supported directly by concrete columns without the

use of beams. The benefits of using flat slab construction are becoming increasingly recognized. Flat slabs without drops (thickened areas of slab around the columns to resist punching shear) can be built faster because formwork is simplified and minimized, and rapid turn-around can be achieved using a combination of early striking2 and flying systems. The overall speed of construction will then be limited by the rate at which vertical elements can be cast. Flat slab construction places no restrictions on the positioning of horizontal services and partitions and can minimize floor-to-floor heights when there is no requirement for a deep false ceiling. This can have knock-on benefits in terms of lower building height, reduced cladding costs and prefabricated services.

.

## Concrete Pier (Isolated Deep Foundation) Design Based on ACI 318-14

Foundation elements are most commonly constructed of reinforced concrete. As compared to the design of concrete elements that form the superstructure of a building, additional consideration must be given to concrete foundation elements due to permanent exposure to potentially deleterious materials, less precise construction tolerances and even the possibility of unintentional mixing with soil.
.

## Wind Analysis for Shade Open Structure Based on ASCE 7-16

In order for a structure to be sound and secure, the foundation, roof, and walls must be strong and wind-resistant. When building a structure it is important to calculate wind load to ensure that the structure can withstand high winds, especially if the building is located in an area known for inclement weather. The main wind force resisting system of a building is a vital component. While wind load calculations can be difficult to figure out because the wind is unpredictable, some standard calculations can give you a good idea of what a building can withstand. Wind loading analysis is an essential part of the building process. If wind loading analysis is not done correctly the resulting effects could include collapsed windows and doors, ripped off roofing, and more. Contact Buildings Guide for quotes on safe and durable prefabricated steel buildings.

## Water Retaining Structures Analysis and Design

Estimating labour requirements is one of the most important parts of estimating and costing the cost of labour. It is often more than half the cost of a job. An error in this area can be very costly to the workplace.
Labour costs depend on the time it will take to manufacture an item. To work this out, it helps to break the job down into the different steps required and then estimate the time it would take someone to complete each step.

## Life Cycle Costing for the Analysis, Management and Maintenance of Civil Engineering Infrastructure

John W. Bull

Preference :

A number of studies have considered life-cycle environmental impacts from the
housing sector (e.g. Adalberth, 1997; Adalberth et al., 2001; Peuportier, 2001; Asif
et al., 2007; Hacker et al., 2008; Hammond and Jones, 2008; BribiÃ¡n et al., 2009; Oritz
et al, 2009; Mohan and Powell, 2010; CuÃ©llar-Franca and Azapagic, 2012) but the
life cycle costs have seldom been addressed. And yet, economic aspects such as
housing costs and affordability are important for the sustainable development of the
residential construction sector.
The housing sector is very important for the UK economy as it directly affects
the economic growth (HC, 2008). For example, in 2010, the construction industry
contributed 8.5% of the UK’s total gross domestic product (GDP) of £1.45 trillion,
to which the residential sector contributed 40% (UKCG, 2009). After Denmark and
Greece, the UK has the highest housing prices across the European Union with people
spending around 40% of their income on housing costs such as mortgage payments
and energy bills (Eurostat, 2012). The latter is the cause of fuel poverty of around six
million households owing to the rising energy prices (DECC, 2009; Bolton, 2010).
In recent years, many people have been unable to purchase a home because of
changes in the availability and types of financial and mortgage products (Sergeant,
2011; DCLG, 2012; RICS, 2012). This situation has created an unstable housing market,
which has led to a fall in house prices and dragged the UK economy further
into recession. For example, the average house price of around £190,000 in 2008 fell
to £160,000 in 2011 (HPUK, 2012). Home ownership is also declining and in 2011
it dropped to 66% from 70.9% in 2003; so the proportion of households that own
their own homes has fallen back to where it was in 1989 (BBC, 2012). This trend
is expected to continue over the next 10 years (Sergeant, 2011). Such a situation is
affecting particularly young people – only 10% of all owner-occupiers are under 35
years of age (BBC, 2012) while 33% of first-time buyers are over 35

Content :
• Life cycle cost analysis of the UK housing stock
• Case study: Life cycle analysis of a community hydroelectric power system
• Selection indicators for stabilization of pavement systems
• Pavement type selection for highway rehabilitation based on a life-cycle cost analysis
• Life cycle management framework for highway bridges
• Life cycle analysis of highway composite bridges
• Life cycle cost analysis for corrosion protective coatings

Download Life Cycle Costing for the Analysis, Management and Maintenance free PDF

## Introduction to Civil Engineering Systems

Samuel Labi

Preference :

The civil engineering discipline involves the development of structural, hydraulic, geotechnical,
construction, environmental, transportation, architectural, and other civil systems that address societies’
infrastructure needs. The planning and design of these systems are well covered in traditional
courses and texts at most universities. In recent years, however, universities have increasingly
sought to infuse a “systems” perspective to their traditional civil engineering curricula. This development
arose out of the recognition that the developers of civil engineering systems need a solid set
of skills in other disciplines. These skills are needed to equip them further for their traditional tasks
at the design and construction phases and also to burnish their analytical skills for other less-obvious
or emerging tasks at all phases of system development.
The development of civil engineering systems over the centuries and millennia has been characterized
by continual improvements that were achieved mostly through series of trial-and-error as
systems were constructed and reconstructed by learning from past mistakes. At the current time,
the use of trial-and-error methods on real-life systems is infeasible because it may take not only
several decades but also involve excessive costs in resources and, possibly, human lives before the
best system can be finally realized. Also in the past, systems have been developed in ways that were
not always effective or cost-effective. For these and other reasons, the current era, which has inherited
the civil engineering systems built decades ago, poses a unique set of challenges for today’s
civil engineers. A large number of these systems, dams, bridges, roads, ports, and so on are functionally
obsolescent or are approaching the end of their design lives and are in need of expansion,
rehabilitation, or replacement. The issue of inadequate or aging civil infrastructure has deservedly
gained national attention due to a series of publicized engineering system failures in the United
States, such as the New Orleans levees, the Minnesota and Seattle interstate highway bridges, and
the New York and Dallas sewers, and in other countries. The current problem of aging infrastructure
is further exacerbated by increased demand and loading fueled by population growth, rising
user expectations of system performance, increased desire for stakeholder participation in decisionmaking
processes, terrorism threats, the looming specter of tort liability, and above all, inadequate
funding for sustained preservation and renewal of these systems.

Content :
• Introduction
• Fundamental Concepts in Systems Engineering
• Tools Needed to Carry Out the Tasks
• The Needs Assessment Phase
• Systems Planning
• System Design
• Systems Construction
• System Operations
• System Monitoring
• System Preservation (Maintenance and Rehabilitation
• System End of Life
• Other Topics Related to Civil Systems Development

## Fluid Mechanics for Civil and Environmental Engineers

Ahlam I. Shalaby

Preference :

The study of fluid mechanics is important in numerous fields of engineering, including civil,
environmental, agricultural, irrigation, mechanical, aerospace, nuclear, chemical, petroleum,
biomedical, fire protection, and automotive engineering. The fundamental principles
of fluid mechanics include three basic units of study: fluid statics, fluid kinematics, and fluid
dynamics (Section 1.2). The physical properties/characteristics of a fluid system, along with
the fluid kinematics and fluid dynamics, will determine the type of fluid flow (Section 1.3).
The physical quantities of fluid flow (geometrics, kinematics, and dynamics) and the physical
properties/characteristics of fluids (mass density, specific gravity, specific weight, viscosity,
surface tension, vapor pressure, and bulk modulus) are expressed using four
primary dimensions (force or mass, length, time, and temperature) and a specific system
of units (metric or English) (Section 1.4). Most fluid properties vary with temperature and
pressure, while the acceleration due to gravity varies with altitude and thus atmospheric
pressure. As such, it is important to distinguish between two types of pressure scales
(Section 1.5), define the conditions of standard atmosphere (Section 1.6), and define the standard
reference for standard atmospheric pressure (Section 1.7). Furthermore, it is important
to highlight Newton’s second law of motion in the definition of the acceleration due to gravity
(Section 1.8) and to note that the dynamic forces acting on a fluid element include those
due to gravity, pressure, viscosity, elasticity, surface tension, and inertia (Section 1.9). And,
finally, the physical properties of fluids are presented in Section 1.10.

The fundamental principles of fluid mechanics can be subdivided into three units of study:
fluid statics, fluid kinematics, and fluid dynamics. Fluid statics deals with fluids at rest,
while fluid kinematics and fluid dynamics deal with fluids in motion. Fluid statics is based
upon the principles of hydrostatics, which yield the hydrostatic pressure equation. Fluid
kinematics is based upon the principle of conservation of mass, which yields the continuity
equation. And fluid dynamics is based upon the principle of conservation of momentum
(Newton’s second law of motion), which yields the equations of motion, known as the
energy equation and the momentum equation. The energy equation may alternatively be
based on the principle of conservation of energy (the first law of thermodynamics). Furthermore,
fluid dynamics also includes the topic of dimensional analysis, which yields the resistance equations.

Content :
• Introduction
• Fluid Statics
• Continuity Equation
• Energy Equation
• Momentum Equation
• Flow Resistance Equations
• Dimensional Analysis
• Pipe Flow
• External Flow
• Dynamic Similitude and Modeling

## Fundamentals of Construction Estimating

Smid Book

Preference :

The goal of this book is to present a method of compiling consistently accurate
construction cost estimates in a minimum of time. The method can easily be
integrated with the latest technology available to obtain soaring productivity; it is a
method of estimating that offers extensive review and control capabilities because it
is consistent with the basic procedures followed by professional estimators and
quantity surveyors in the construction industry.
The method presented is intended to represent a standard or basic core that can
be adopted in the many types of construction estimating used across the wide variety
of construction work. Worked examples and explanations that are offered, however,
will come from small building projects of minimal complexity so that the reader can
concentrate on the technique involved rather than spend time unraveling detail.
The book is intended primarily for the person who is beginning to learn the
process of construction cost estimating. This person may be employed in a contractor’s
office taking on estimating responsibilities for the first time, or he or she may
be a student starting a course in estimating at college. The text will also be of interest to many supervisors, construction managers, and practicing estimators who, from
time to time, may need to refer to an estimating standard or simply investigate how
other estimators approach this subject.

Estimates serve a number of different functions in the construction process. In the early stages of a construction program, the owner needs an
estimate of the probable cost of construction to assess the financial feasibility of the
project. This conceptual estimate has to be prepared from a minimum amount of
information because it is required at a time when the project is often little more than
a vague idea in the mind of the owner. There will be few if any design details at this
stage because the design process will not begin until the owner is satisfied that the
cost of proceeding with it is justified.

Content :
• INTRODUCTION
• THE ESTIMATING PROCESS AND PRELIMINARY PROCEDURES
• MEASURING QUANTITIES GENERALLY
• MEASURING SITEWORK, EXCAVATION, AND PILING
• MEASURING CONCRETE WORK
• MEASURING MASONRY WORK
• MEASURING CARPENTRY AND MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS
• PRICING GENERALLY
• PRICING CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT
• PRICING EXCAVATION AND BACKFILL
• PRICING CONCRETE WORK
• PRICING MASONRY, CARPENTRY, AND FINISHES WORK
• PRICING SUBCONTRACTORS’ WORK
• PRICING GENERAL EXPENSES
• CLOSING THE BID
• LIFE-CYCLE COSTING

## Civil Engineer’s Handbook of Professional Practice

Karen Lee Hansen, Kent E. Zenobia

Preference :

The Civil Engineer’s Handbook of Professional Practice is a professional practice guide
for civil engineers. The first decade of the 21st century has afforded many opportunities
to reflect on the role civil engineers will play in coming years. The global economy
and world banking system, national security, climate change, dwindling natural
resources, technological advances, and societal changes have provided sufficient food
for thought. In retrospect, the 2001 American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)
report, titled Engineering the Future of Civil Engineering, which acknowledged that
civil engineering must respond proactively to increasingly complex challenges related
to public health, safety, and welfare, appears prophetic.
As a university program, civil engineering has been growing in the 21st century.
Enrollment in most universities across the nation continues to increase, partially due
to shrinking opportunities in other technical fields as a result of outsourcing. Civil
engineers work very closely with government agencies and on projects requiring significant
local knowledge, making outsourcing of their work difficult. According to
the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics:
Civil engineers are expected to experience 24 percent employment growth during
the projections decade [2008 2018], faster than the average for all occupations.
Spurred by general population growth and the related need to improve the Nation’s
infrastructure, more civil engineers will be needed to design and construct or expand
transportation, water supply, and pollution control systems and buildings and
building complexes. They also will be needed to repair or replace existing roads,
bridges, and other public structures.
For several years the country’s infrastructure has been given a grade of ‘‘D’’ on
the ASCE’s infrastructure report card; in 2009 the ASCE estimated that a \$2.2 trillion
investment was needed over the next five years to rectify this problem. Significant
public and private funding sources have been established to address this challenge
and, as a result, the demand for well-educated and competent civil engineers should
continue.

Content :
• Introduction
• Background and History of the Profession
• Ethics
• Professional Engagement
• The Engineer's Role in Project Development
• What Engineers Deliver
• Executing a Professional Commission—Project Management
• Permitting
• The Client Relationship and Business Development
• Legal Aspects of Professional Practice
• Managing the Civil Engineering Enterprise

## Fundamentals of Civil Engineering An introduction to the ASCE body of knowledge

Richard H. McCuen, Edna Z. Ezzell

Preference :

The second edition of the ASCE Body of Knowledge (BOK) states: For purposes of the civil engineering BOK, outcomes are statements that describe what individuals are expected to know and be able to do by the time of entry into the practice of Civil Engineering at the professional level in the 21st century—that is, attain licensure. Outcomes define the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that individuals acquire through appropriate formal education and prelicensure experience.1 It is quite likely that most civil engineering programs as they are currently structured do not fully meet this goal. The technical side of the BOK is probably addressed adequately, likely even more than adequately. However, all students who receive undergraduate degrees in civil engineering probably fail to adequately develop the full range of knowledge, attitudes, and skills suggested and implied by the BOK. Undergraduate civil engineering education would be greatly enhanced if the knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) stressed in the BOK were more formally addressed in the curriculum.

This objective will be more easily accomplished if resource material is available. This primer was written as a resource for addressing some of the KSAs that are not specifically introduced in many undergraduate civil engineering programs. This primer was developed principally as a reference for an undergraduate course where topics identified in the ASCE Body of Knowledge are presented. The material covered in this primer is limited to the nontechnical aspects of civil engineering. The material presented in the book for each BOK outcome is intended as an introduction rather than thorough coverage, as an entire three-credit-hour course could be devoted to the individual BOK outcomes like leadership and communication. In addition to civil engineering students, the primer could serve as a resource for those in other engineering disciplines, as many of the BOK outcomes are relevant to success in those fields. While the primer was conceived as a classroom resource, it would certainly be of value to those who have completed their formal education but have an interest in adding breadth to their technical knowledge.

Content :
• Introduction
• Humanities
• Social Sciences
• Experimentation
• Sustainability
• Contemporary Issues and Historical Perspectives
• Risk and Uncertainty
• Communication
• Public Policy
• Globalization
• Teamwork
• Professional and Ethical Responsibilities

Download Fundamentals of Civil Engineering An introduction to the ASCE body of knowledge free PDF

## Materials for Civil and Construction Engineers, Fourth Edition

Michael S. Mamlouk

Preference :

A basic function of civil and construction engineering is to provide and maintain the infrastructure needs of society. The infrastructure includes buildings, water treatment and distribution systems, waste water removal and processing, dams, and highway and airport bridges and pavements. Although some civil and construction engineers are involved in the planning process, most are concerned with the design, construction, and maintenance of facilities. The common denominator among these responsibilities is the need to understand the behavior and performance of materials. Although not all civil and construction engineers need to be material specialists, a basic understanding of the material selection process, and the behavior of materials, is a fundamental requirement for all civil and construction engineers performing design, construction, and maintenance.
Material requirements in civil engineering and construction facilities are different from material requirements in other engineering disciplines. Frequently, civil engineering structures require tons of materials with relatively low replications of specific designs. Generally, the materials used in civil engineering have relatively low unit costs. In many cases, civil engineering structures are formed or fabricated in the field under adverse conditions. Finally, many civil engineering structures are directly exposed to detrimental effects of the environment. The subject of engineering materials has advanced greatly in the past few decades. As a result, many of the conventional materials have either been replaced by more efficient materials or modified to improve their performance. Civil and construction engineers have to be aware of these advances and be able to select the most cost-effective material or use the appropriate modifier for the specific application at hand.
This text is organized into three parts: (1) introduction to materials engineering, (2) characteristics of materials used in civil and construction engineering, and (3) laboratory methods for the evaluation of materials. The introduction to materials engineering includes information on the basic mechanistic properties of materials, environmental influences, and basic material classes. In addition, one of the responsibilities of civil and construction engineers is the inspection and quality control of materials in the construction process. This requires an understanding of material variability and testing procedures. The atomic structure of materials is covered in order to provide basic understanding of material behavior and to relate the molecular structure to the engineering response.

Content :
• Materials Engineering Concepts
• Nature of Materials
• Steel
• Aluminum
• Aggregates
• Portland Cement, Mixing Water, and Admixtures
• Portland Cement Concrete
• Masonry
• Asphalt Binders and Asphalt Mixtures
• Wood
• Composites

Get it Now

## Water Treatment Plant Design

Edward E, Baruth

Preference :

Design of water treatment plants is evolving. New technologies and unit processes continue
to emerge and have become much more common since publication of the third edition
of Water Treatment Plant Design 7 years ago. Security issues, summarized in a new
chapter in this fourth edition, have forever redirected many aspects of design. Additional
reference materials for security design considerations are becoming available and should
be consulted for further information.

Equipment design continues to broaden, yet sources of manufactured products have
become more consolidated in the past 7 years. This new edition contains numerous revisions
of illustrations and photography; however, not all new technologies or equipment
offerings are represented. The American Water Works Association (AWWA) and the
American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) are interested in obtaining input from readers
on how to facilitate the future exchange of information on equipment. Alternatives
such as Web-based links are being considered to better provide needed product information
to the design community.

The first version of Water Treatment Plant Design was published in 1939 as a manual
of engineering practice for the ASCE. In 1969, the manual assumed book form and
was updated to include a discussion of developments in pretreatment and filtration processes.
The 1969 edition was the result of a joint effort between committees of the ASCE,
the AWWA, and the Conference of State Sanitary Engineers (CSSE).
The second edition was produced in 1990 through a joint effort of the AWWA and
the ASCE. The material for each chapter was prepared by one or more authors and reviewed
by a joint committee of AWWA and ASCE members.
The third edition, published in 1998, was a joint AWWA and ASCE effort and was
essentially a complete rewrite of the previous edition. The information presented in the
book was prepared as a guide and represented a consensus of opinion of recognized authorities
in the field. A steering committee made up of members from both associations
guided the revision process.

Updates to this fourth edition provide significant new information on many important
topics. Authors from engineering firms and water utilities throughout North America have
revised the chapters and written the two new chapters on UV technologies and security.
Providing support to the chapter authors was a significant base of volunteer reviewers.
Due to the ability of the authors to distribute drafts of their chapters electronically to large
numbers of prospective reviewers, it became apparent that the attempt to accurately name
all reviewers would result in inadvertent omissions. Therefore a general acknowledgment
and thanks to all reviewers is hereby offered.

Content :
• The Challenge of Water Treatment Plant Design
• Master Planning and Treatment Process Selection
• Design and Construction
• Intake Facilities
• Aeration and Air Stripping
• Mixing, Coagulation, and Flocculation
• Clarification
• High-Rate Granular Media Filtration
• Slow Sand and Diatomaceous Earth Filtration
• Oxidation and Disinfection
• Water Treatment Plant Security
• Properties and Characteristics of Water Treatment

## Drawing Management with AutoCAD Sheet Set

Prakoso, Edwin

Preference :

Sheet Set is a great tool to manage your project’s documentation. You can collect and manage all of your drawings to a Sheet Set. This will let you and your team access it easily during the design process. Sheet set also allows you to share common information to all drawings in Sheet Set. It allows you automate tasks, related to project’s documentation. For example, you only need to change project name once. The text in all drawings in the same Sheet Set will change automatically. These capabilities will help you to manage your drawings document easily. This e-book will guide you to create your own Sheet Set and utilize it. You will learn how to create your own sheet template, set up Sheet Set, create sheets and use tools in Sheet Set Manager to make you more productive.

You need to know AutoCAD basic features before using this e-book.
The skills that you need to know are:
1. You need to know how to work with AutoCAD dynamic blocks.
2. You need to know how to create and use block attributes.
3. You need to know how to work with layout and viewport
4. You need to know how to work with text fields.
You will use them in this e-book, but they are not covered in details here.

Content :
• Introduction to Sheet Set
• Preparation
• Configuring Sheet Set
• Working with Sheet Set
• Working With Sheet Views
• Sheet Set Automation

## Linear and Non-linear Numerical Analysis of Foundations

Smid Book

Preference :

The correct understanding, design and analysis of foundations that support
structures are fundamental to the safety of those structures. Witness
the leaning tower of Pisa, which, if built a short distance from its present
location, would have remained upright and have been just another safe
structure!
With the introduction of more complex design codes, such as the Eurocodes
in Europe, it is becoming increasingly necessary to use linear and
non-linear numerical analysis in the design of foundations to model accurately
In order to allow designers, engineers, architects, researchers and clients
to understand the advanced numerical techniques used in the analysis and
design of foundations, and to guide them into safer, less expensive and longerlasting
structural foundations, a wide range of world experts with knowledge
in the latest advances in the design and analysis of foundations has
been brought together, and their expertise presented in a clear and logical
way.
The chapters in this book provide a review of state-of-the-art techniques
for modeling foundations, using linear and non-linear numerical analysis,
as they affect a range of infrastructure, civil engineering and structural
engineering foundations. The use of these chapters will allow designers,
engineers, architects, researchers and clients to understand the advanced
numerical techniques used in the analysis and design of foundations,
and to guide them into safer, less expensive and longer-lasting structural
foundations.
The following topics are covered in the book:
Using probabilistic methods to measure the risk of geotechnical site investigations
illustrates that probabilistic methods can be employed successfully
to measure the effectiveness of site investigations.

Content :
• Using probabilistic methods to measure the risk of geotechnical site investigations
• The contribution of numerical analysis to the response prediction of pile foundations
• Uplift capacity of inclined plate ground anchors in soil
• Numerical modeling of geosynthetic reinforced soil walls
• Seismic analysis of pile foundations in liquefying soil
• The effect of negative skin friction on piles and pile groups
• Semi-analytical approach for analyzing ground vibrations caused by trains moving over elevated bridges with
• pile foundations
• Efficient analysis of buildings with grouped piles for seismic stiffness and strength design
• Modeling of cyclic mobility and associated lateral ground
• deformations for earthquake engineering applications
• Bearing capacity of shallow foundations under static and seismic conditions
• Free vibrations of industrial chimneys or communications towers with flexibility of soil

## Concrete Folded Plate Roofs

C B Wilby

Preference :

Folded plates have been used on various buildings, for instance storage buildings, swimming
pools, gymnasia, offices, centres, entrances to buildings and tunnels - for examples see Plates
1-18. Sometimes industrialists like to have the facility to hang unpredicted miscellaneous light
loads from anywhere under a roof and regard the structural steelwork as inherently providing this
facility. Because of this requirement the author designed the shells shown in Plate 10 to have a
network of numerous cadmium-plated steel bolts placed through holes in the shells and through
steel anchorage plates of 152 mm (6 in) square on the top surface of the shells. Each bolt protruded
out of the soffit of the shell so that just about anything could be screwed on to it at some
future date. The nuts and plates were covered with a 50 mm (2 in) layer of vermiculite insulation
on the top of the shell, waterproofed with three layers of built-up roofing felt. This facility can
similarly be applied to the plates of folded plate roofs.
Because they are of concrete, such roofs have inherent resistance to fire, deterioration and to
atmospheric corrosion. They allow large spans to be achieved in structural concrete. This allows
flexibility of planning and mobility beneath. Where ground conditions require expensive piled
foundations the reduced number of supporting columns can be an economic advantage. For large
spans in structural concrete folded plates compete with barrel vault roofs. The plates are required
to be thicker than the shells, and there are more firms who will tackle constructing them without
excessive prices, increasing competition and sometimes making the cost more competitive than
for cylindrical shells.

Content :
• Practicalities
• Analysis used for the design tables
• Factors used in the design tables
• Construction
• Appendices: Design tables for concrete folded plate roofs

## Managing the Building Design Process

Gavin Tunstall

Preference :

There can be little doubt that towards the latter part of the twentieth century, the creation of
many new buildings in the UK had become an excessively confrontational process, encouraging
clients, designers and builders to seek to gain advantages from one another rather than to
work constructively together. Strict adherence to ‘professional’ roles and an unwillingness to
step over historically defined boundaries discouraged co-operation and collaboration.
Blinkered by contracts, time scales and costs, the process often appeared to be cramped in an
over-demanding, claims-conscious environment, fixated by narrow aims and responsibilities,
seemingly unable or unwilling to reflect a genuine concern with quality or customer care. The
Latham and Egan Reports, published in the 1990s described this situation as wasteful and very
significantly, that it was contributing to a diminution in the quality of both design and construction.
The reports laid the foundations for substantial on-going changes in practice and guidance
developed during the past 10 years.

The process of designing and constructing new buildings is a complex activity reflecting the
skills, perceptions and expectations of many individuals, who must attempt to respond to technical
and philosophical challenges, resolve debates and deal with the inevitable conflicts associated
with working together. The associated personnel difficulties and contractual obligations
cannot be dismissed lightly, but in an ideal scenario, everyone should be capable of appreciating
how and why decisions are taken so that there is a better chance of achieving the best possible
results under the prevailing circumstances. Understanding the process of building design
in terms of what should be done rather than who should do it helps to minimise the negative
restraints of professional boundaries. This book is based on my experience as an architect, but
I use the term building designer to describe the process of design and construction of an imaginary
new building offering a broad stage-by-stage explanation of the way in which ideas can
become reality. Although reference to some technical issues is inevitably based on current UK
practice, for the most part my intension is to discuss general principles, which I believe to be
universally applicable.

Content :
• Design and the designers
• Communication
• Permissions and approvals
• Inception
• Design planning
• The design brief
• The Design: Function, Part 1 How buildings are used
• The Design: Function, Part 2 Design and construction constraints
• The design: aesthetics
• Construction information