External pressure & loading analysis to tunnel, pipe culvert & arch culvert wall.

External pressure & loading analysis to tunnel

The analysis and design of pipe culverts is essentially a
problem of soil-structure interaction, and it is necessary to
give full cognizance to this fundamental coupling phenomenon when formulating or evaluating any specific procedures. Historically, pipe culverts have been divided into two general
categories—flexible and rigid—and independent analysis
and design procedures have been developed for each. However, despite the individual design treatment given these
extreme situations, the load acting on the culvert in each
case is determined in basically the same manner; this, of
course, is inconsistent with the interaction effect between
the soil and the culvert.

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