Design and Simulation of Four-Stroke Engines

Design and Simulation of Four-Stroke Engines

 Gordon P. Blair

Preference :

It is generally accepted that the theoretical cycle on which the four-stroke engine is based
was proposed by Beau de Rochas in 1876. The fist practical demonstration ofthe engine was
implemented by Otto in 1876. This book is not about the history of the internal-combustion
engine, but realizing that some ofyou may wish to study it, it is recommended that you peruse
the informed writings of Cummins, Obert, Taylor, Caunter, or Ricardo [1.1-1.5]. The book by
Cummins [1.1] is quite an authoritative text in this historical context.
This book is also not about the detailed design of the mechanical components of an
engine, such as crankshafts or connecting rods. For that, one reads elsewhere in the literature.
Nor is it a comprehensive collection ofdesign ideas for the cylinder head, valving, or ducting
geometries of every configuration of four-stroke engine constructed in times past.

This book is about the design of the four-stroke engine so as to achieve its target perfor-
mance characteristics for the application required, irrespective of whether that application is

intended for Formula 1 car racing or a lawnmower. To do that, one must thoroughly under-
stand the filling and emptying of the engine cylinders with air and exhaust gas and the

combustion of the trapped charge within them. Hence, this book is about the unsteady gas

dynamics and thermodynamics associated with the four-stroke engine. Nevertheless, to sensi-
bly design for the performance characteristics, one must bring the real geometry ofthe engine,

its cylinder head, combustion chamber, mifolding, and ducting into the gas dynamic and
thermodynamic design process, otherwise the outcome is meaningless, not to mention useless.
Therefore, very frequently, the real geometry and the measured test data from actual engines
will be produced to illustrate a design point being made. To conduct such a design process, the
only pragmatic approach is to simulate the unsteady gas dynamics and thermodynamics within
the entire engine, basing the simulation on the physical geometry of that engine in the finest
detail, from the aperture where air enters the engine initially to the aperture where the exhaust
gas finally exits from the engine.

Design and Simulation of Four-Stroke Engines

Content :
  • Introduction to the Four-Stroke Engine
  • The Fundamental Method of Operation of a Simple Four-Stroke Engine
  • The Cylinder Head Geometry ofTypical Spark-Ignition Engines
  • The Cylinder Head Geometry of Typical Compression-Ignition Engines
  • The Fundamental Geometry of the Cylinder Head
  • Gas Flow through Four-Stroke Engines
  • Discharge Coefficients of Flow within Four-Stroke Engines
  • Combustion in Four-Stroke Engines
  • Computer Modeling of Four-Stroke Engines
  • Empirical Assistance for the Designer of Four-Stroke Engines
  • Reduction ofNoise Emission from Four-Stroke Engines

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