Staircase Analysis and Design Spreadsheet

Staircase Analysis and Design Spreadsheet



Staircases provide means of movement from one floor to another in a structure. Staircases
consist of a number of steps with landings at suitable intervals to provide comfort and safety
for the users.

Types of Stairs
For purpose of design, stairs are classified into two types; transversely, and longitudinally
supported.
a- Transversely supported (transverse to the direction of movement):
Transversely supported stairs include:
§ Simply supported steps supported by two walls or beams or a combination of both.
§ Steps cantilevering from a wall or a beam.
§ Stairs cantilevering from a central spine beam.
b- Longitudinally supported (in the direction of movement):
These stairs span between supports at the top and bottom of a flight and unsupported at the
sides. Longitudinally supported stairs may be supported in any of the following manners:
a. Beams or walls at the outside edges of the landings.
b. Internal beams at the ends of the flight in addition to beams or walls at the outside edges of
the landings.
c. Landings which are supported by beams or walls running in the longitudinal direction.
d. A combination of (a) or (b), and (c).

e. Stairs with quarter landings associated with open-well stairs.


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Prestressed Concrete Design

Prestressed Concrete Design


The purpose of this book is to explain the fundamental principles of design for
prestressed concrete structures, and it is intended for both students and practising
engineers. Although the emphasis is on design—the problem of providing a structure
to fulfil a particular purpose—this can only be achieved if the designer has a sound
understanding of the behaviour of prestressed concrete structures. This behaviour is
described in some detail, with references to specialist literature for further information
where necessary.

Prestressed concrete is the most recent of the major forms of construction to be
introduced into structural engineering. Although several patents were taken out in the
last century for various prestressing schemes, they were unsuccessful because low-
strength steel was used, with the result that long-term effects of creep and shrinkage
of the concrete reduced the prestress force so much that any advantage was lost. It
was only in the early part of the twentieth century that the French engineer Eugène
Freyssinet approached the problem in a systematic way and, using high-strength steel,
first applied the technique of prestressing concrete successfully. Since then
prestressed concrete has become a well-established method of construction, and the
technology is available in most developed, and in many developing, countries. An
account of some of the early developments in prestressed concrete is given in Walley

(1984).The idea of prestressing, or preloading, a structure is not new. Barrels were, and
still are, made from separate wooden staves, kept in place by metal hoops. These are
slightly smaller in diameter than the diameter of the barrel, and are forced into place
over the staves, so tightening them together and forming a watertight barrel .
Cartwheels were similarly prestressed by passing a heated iron tyre around the
wooden rim of the wheel. On cooling, the tyre would contract and be held firmly in
place on the rim, thus strengthening the joints between the spokes and the
rim by putting them into compression.
The technique of prestressing has several different applications within civil
engineering, often being used to keep cables taut when subjected to compressive
forces. However, by far the most common application is in prestressed concrete where
a prestress force is applied to a concrete member, and this induces an axial
compression that counteracts all, or part of, the tensile stresses set up in the member
by applied loading.


Content:


  • Basic principles
  • Properties of materials
  • Limit state design
  • Loss of prestress force
  • Analysis of sections
  • Deflections
  • Shear
  • Prestressing systems and anchorages
  • Design of members
  • Composite construction
  • Indeterminate structures
  • Prestressed flat slabs
  • Design examples
  • Solutions to problems

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CNC Control Setup for Milling and Turning Mastering CNC Control Systems

CNC Control Setup for Milling and Turning Mastering CNC Control Systems

Smid Book

Preference :

Making a certain part (also called a workpiece) doesn't normally start at the CNC machine - it starts much earlier, at the design engineer’s desk. Engineering design means developing an intended part that is economical to make, of high quality, as well as a part that does what it is supposed to do - simply, to design a part that works. This process takes place in various offices and laboratories, research centers, and other places, including engineer’s imagination. Manufacturing process -
CNC process included - is always a cooperative effort. Modern part design requires professionals from different disciplines, aided by a powerful computer installed with suitable design software, for example, SolidWorks®, Autodesk Inventor®, and many others, as well the venerable AutoCad® - one of the oldest and still very popular of the design group of application software. In
simplified terms, engineering design starts with an idea and ends with the development of a drawing - or a series of drawings - that can be used in manufacturing at various stages.

For the CNC programmer as well as the CNC operator, this engineering drawing is the first source, and often the only source, of information about what the final part is to be. Typically, CNC programmer follows a certain process - or workflow - that can be summarized into a
several critical points or steps:
  • Evaluate drawing
  • Identify material of the part
  • Determine part holding method
  • Select suitable tools
  • Decide on cutting conditions
  • Write the program
  • Verify the program
  • Complete documentation
  • Send program to machine shop

Keep in mind that this is not always the step-by-step method as it may appear to be. Often, a decision made in one step influences a decision made in another step, which often leads to revisiting earlier stages of the process and making necessary changes.

CNC Control Setup for Milling and Turning Mastering CNC Control Systems


Content :
  • CONCEPTS OF CNC MACHINING
  • CNC MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS.
  • PROGRAM INTERPRETATION
  • CONTROL SYSTEM
  • OPERATION PANEL
  • SETUP HANDLE.
  • MILLING TOOLS - SETUP
  • SETTING PART ZERO
  • WORK OFFSET SETTINGS.
  • TOOL LENGTH OFFSET.
  • MACHINING A PART
  • MACHINING HOLES
  • OFFSET CHANGE BY PROGRAM.
  • SYSTEM PARAMETERS.
  • PROGRAM OPTIMIZATION


Download CNC Control Setup for Milling and Turning Mastering CNC Control Systems free PDF

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Earthquake Engineering for Structural Design

Earthquake Engineering for Structural Design


Earthquakes were the cause of more than 1.5 million deaths worldwide during the
20th Century. During the beginning of the 21st Century the number of deaths was
about half a million. This is an unacceptable finding, because earthquakes can no
longer be regarded as natural disasters, since the main cause of this huge number of
casualties is the inadequate seismic resistance of the building stock, lifelines and
industry, which could be avoided. Earthquakes do not kill people, but the building
collapse can do it. It is an unbelievable situation that, after a century of research
works, each strong earthquake brings new surprises and creates the situation that
new lessons have to be learnt. After a series of devastating earthquakes during the
last years of the past century (1994 Northridge, 1995 Kobe, 1999 Kocaeli and
Taiwan earthquakes), it has been recognized by society that both seismic hazard
and risk have to be reassessed.
Important progress was made in the last period, but many problems remain
unsatisfactorily solved. Therefore, now is the right moment to analyze the level of
current knowledge and to identify the challenges for future research works and for
the next code generation. This is the main intention of this book. The progress in
understanding and controlling the complex phenomena of the earthquake
production can be analyzed both from scientific and practical points of view.
From the scientific point of view, the main effort must be directed towards the
inner understanding of the complex phenomenon of an earthquake. Some new
fundamental disciplines, developed in the last decades, must be deeply studied.


Earthquakes represent the largest potential source of casualties and damage for
inhabited areas due to natural hazard. Although the location varies, the pattern is
the same: an earthquake strikes without warning, leaving cities in rubble and
killing tens to hundreds of thousands of people. Worldwide during the 20th
Century, there were ten earthquakes killing more than 50,000 people and over 100
earthquakes killing more than 1000 people (FEMA 383, 2003). Every year,
something like five thousand to ten thousand people die during earthquakes
worldwide. The 1976 Tangshan-China (magnitude M 8.0), the worst earthquake in
recent times, killed over 600,000. Among these terrifying data, the moderate 1994
Northridge in Los Angeles (magnitude M 6.7), which killed 60 people, and 1995
Kobe in Japan (magnitude M 6.9), which killed 5600 people, seemed to be
relatively insignificant. Nevertheless, these two earthquakes have changed the
direction of earthquake engineering research throughout the World (Blakeborough,
2002). Two main reasons produced this crucial change.
The first reason lies not in the number of dead, but in their economic costs.
Each event was a direct hit by a moderate earthquake on a dense built-up area. In
Northridge, around 15,000 buildings had to be demolished, resulting in a total loss
ranging from $15bn to $40bn. In Kobe, 180,000 buildings were destroyed or
seriously damaged, the repair costs being estimated in the range of $90bn to
$150bn. Each earthquake set a record loss for natural disasters both for the USA
and Japan, respectively. Following these earthquakes, it was immediately apparent
that the old principles for seismic design had to change. Whereas the previous
principles had been primarily oriented to safeguard buildings against collapse, the
new and more refined rules are devoted to reduce the damage costs, by keeping the
non-structural elements and the structures in an acceptable damage level. So, the
principles of Performance Based Seismic Design were set up

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Mechanics of Materials Sixth Edition

Mechanics of Materials Sixth Edition 


The main objective of a basic mechanics course should be to develop
in the engineering student the ability to analyze a given problem in

a simple and logical manner and to apply to its solution a few fun-
damental and well-understood principles. This text is designed for

the first course in mechanics of materials—or strength of materials—
offered to engineering students in the sophomore or junior year. The
authors hope that it will help instructors achieve this goal in that
particular course in the same way that their other texts may have
helped them in statics and dynamics.
is expected that students using this text will have completed a
course in statics. However, Chap. 1 is designed to provide them with
an opportunity to review the concepts learned in that course, while
shear and bending-moment diagrams are covered in detail in Secs.
5.2 and 5.3. The properties of moments and centroids of areas are
described in Appendix A; this material can be used to reinforce the
discussion of the determination of normal and shearing stresses in beams


Content :
Introduction—Concept of Stress
Stress and Strain—Axial Loading
Torsion
Pure Bending
Analysis and Design of Beams for Bending
Shearing Stresses in Beams and Thin-Walled Members
Transformations of Stress and Strain
Principal Stresses under a Given Loading
Deflection of Beams
Columns
Energy Methods

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Modeling and Analysis with Induction Generators

Modeling and Analysis with Induction Generators

Felix A. Farret, M. Godoy Simões

Preference :

During the fall of 2003, the authors decided to bring together their interests and
start working on what would be the first edition of this book, published in 2004.
The reasoning was that although so many books have been written on induction
machines, drives, and motors in general, none existed at that time that would cover
specifically how to understand, model, analyze, and simulate induction generators,
particularly in the applications of renewable or alternative energy systems.
In the second edition, we shortened a few sections and added new ones, trying to
make clear some concepts. We have also provided better coverage of doubly fed
induction generators and applications of induction generators. Over the years, we
noticed how important induction generators became both for stand-alone and gridconnected
applications. The number of installations of small- and medium-sized
wind energy power plants based on this very easy, cost-effective, and reliable generating
machine is remarkable, to the point of making us even more enthusiastic
about this subject.
Now, more than a decade after we first started this project, we are very proud to
present this third edition, with a new title that focuses on our objectives, that is, to
present the fundamentals and advances in modeling and analysis of induction generators.
Topics like understanding the process of self-excitation, numerical analysis
of stand-alone and multiple induction generators, requirements for optimized laboratory
experimentation, application of modern vector control, optimization of power
transference, use of doubly fed induction generators, computer-based simulations,
and social and economic impacts are presented in order to take the academic realm
of the subject to the desks of practicing engineers and undergraduate and graduate
students. Our intention in this new edition of the book has been to move from a
research-oriented approach toward a more educational approach. Therefore, we have
provided several solved problems and further suggested problems at the end of each
chapter. We would really love to receive feedback regarding how instructors are
using and adapting this textbook in their courses.
Part of our intent is to give ideas and suggest directions for further development
in this field; the reader is also referred to other sources for details regarding development.
As teachers and researchers, we realize the importance of feedback and
appreciate any comments and suggestions for improvements that might add value to
the material we have presented.

Modeling and Analysis with Induction Generators

Content :
  • Principles of Alternative Sources of Energy and Electric Generation
  • Steady-State Model of Induction Generators
  • Transient Model of Induction Generators
  • Self-Excited Induction Generators
  • General Characteristics of Induction Generators
  • Construction Features of Induction Generators
  • Power Electronics for Interfacing Induction Generators
  • Scalar Control for Induction Generators
  • Optimized Control for Induction Generators
  • Doubly Fed Induction Generators
  • Simulation Tools for Induction Generators
  • Applications of Induction Generators in Alternative Sources of Energy
  • Economics of Induction Generator–Based Renewable Systems


Download Modeling and Analysis with Induction Generators, Third Edition free PDF

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Understanding Structural Analysis Third Edition

Understanding Structural Analysis Third Edition


This book is aimed at the identification oJ the fundamental princiPles of
structural analysis together with the develoPment oI a sound understanding
of structural behaviour. This combination leads to the ability to arrive at
a numerical solution.
Using a series of structural diagrams as a visual lanSuage ol
structural behaviour that can be understood with the minimum oJ textual
comments, the book aims to develop a qualitative understanding of the
response of the structure to load. It is ideally suited to under8raduates
studying indeterminate framed structures as Part of a core course in civil
or structural engineerinS' but it is also suitable, because of its
qualitative approach, for students of architecture and building technology.
The book is in two parts. Part I' the first lour chapters, deals with
the development ol qualitative skiils; that is' the ability to Produce a
non-numerical solution to the loaded line-dia8ram ol a structure. It is
considered that the ability to arrive at the qualitative solution to framed
structures is a significantly imlortant component of the overall
understanding of structural behaviour.
Part II deals with current methods of structural analysis using the
diagrammatic format to which the student has become accustomed.
The need lor the developrrent of qualitative skills increases with the
increasing use of the computer in design offices. In the near future, the
computer will replace the majority ol analysis and structural desiSn
calculations. Unfortunately, this will also have the elfect of eliminating
much of the experience and consequent understanding gained by the student
and trainee engineer.


The subject of this book is the behaviour and analysis of statically
indeterminate structures. However, this first chapter reviews the
behaviour of deterninate structures, a thorough understanding of which
is essential before the topic of indeterminacy can be tackled. The text
assumes a basic knowled8e of mechanics including an understandin8 of
the principles of overall equilibrium, bending moments, shear and axial
forces.
It is possible to analyse determinate structures by consideration of
equilibrium - in general terms, the application ol force and moment
eouarions v 1 O. d = 0 and lt = 0.
With most real structures, this is not possible as the presence ol
redundant members (secondary load paths) makes it necessary to consider
relative member delormation beJore a solution of the structure can be
attained. The number of unknowns which cannot be lound Jrom equilibrium
considerations is known as the degree oJ statical indeterminacy.
The design oJ engineering structures usually starts from a need to
sostain loads. Initially though, it requires an understanding ol the way in
which a proposed system of members can provide the required support, and
how it will deform.
It is, however, clear that an understandin8 oi the behaviour of
statically indeterninate systems is based upon a thorou8h appreciation
cf deterrirrate systems.
This chapter develops the relationship between load and delormation for
a range of structures which are amenable to solution by the application of
equilibrium alone.

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