Precast Concrete Structures, Second Edition

Precast Concrete Structures, Second Edition

Kim S. Elliott

Preference :

A precast concrete structure is an assemblage of precast elements which, when suitably connected together, form a three-dimensional framework capable of resisting gravitation and wind (or even earthquake*) loads. The framework is ideally suited to buildings such as offices, retail units, car parks, schools, stadia, and other such buildings requiring minimal internal obstruction and multifunctional leasable space. The quantity of concrete in a precast framework is less than 4% of the gross volume of the building, and two-thirds of this is in the floors. In the case of the shopping centre and car park shown in Figure 1.6, the precast concrete elements supporting vertical actions (i.e. gravity loads) are columns, beams, floor slabs, staircases, and stair-cores. The framework is ‘braced’ against horizontal actions (i.e. lateral loads and wind pressure) using very deep columns (gable end to the left of the photo) and diagonal bracing (front elevation). The framework shown in Figure 1.7 was built using similar elements, but because the resistance against horizontal actions is provided by the same columns that support vertical actions, the framework and hence the columns are classed as ‘unbraced’. The precast framework Figure 1.8 is likewise a column, beam and slab structure, but here the beam-to-column connections are designed as moment resisting, and therefore together with the strength and stiffness of the beams and columns, the resistance against horizontal actions is provided frame action, in a similar manner as for cast in-situ concrete frames. The distinguishing feature of the precast framework is that the beam-to-column connections are rarely fully rigid, known as ‘semi-rigid’, and therefore the columns must also resist horizontal actions as in the case of the unbraced frame in Figure 1.7. The frameworks shown in Figures 1.9 and 1.10 were built using similar elements, but thanks to some creative surface finishes and more expensive mouldings, this building appears to have a completely different function, both architecturally and structurally.

Precast Concrete Structures, Second Edition


Content :
  • What is precast concrete
  • Materials used in precast structures
  • Precast frame analysis
  • Precast concrete floors
  • Precast concrete beams
  • Precast concrete columns
  • Shear walls
  • Horizontal floor diaphragms
  • Joints and connections
  • Joints and connections
  • Beam and column connections
  • Ties in precast concrete structures
  • Design exercise for 10-storey precast skeletal frame


Download Precast Concrete Structures, Second Edition free PDF

LINK

Structural Elements for Architects and Builders

Structural Elements for Architects and Builders

Jonathan Ochshorn

Preference :

Asis well known, architects and builders rarely design the structural elements and systems within their buildings, instead engaging the services of (and, it is to be hoped, collaborating with) structural engineers, or relying upon standard practices sanctioned by building codes. Where architects or builders wish to be adventurous with their structures, some knowledge of structural behavior and the potential of structural materials is certainly useful. On the other hand, where they are content to employ generic structural systems — platform framing in wood, simple skeletal frames in steel or reinforced concrete — one can get by with little actual knowledge of structural design, relying instead on the expertise of structural consultants and the knowledge of common spans, heights, and cross-sectional dimensions around which many ordinary buildings can be planned.
The heroic stage of modernism, in which architects often sought to reconcile structural behavior and overall building form — some finding inspiration in the structural frame or the load-bearing wall — was also the heroic stage of structural education for architects: it was hardly necessary, in that context, to explain why architects needed to learn about structures. Some of the same excitement about the potential of structure in architecture still remains, but it is also true that a “ mannerist ”
tendency has emerged, interested not necessarily in renouncing the role of structure inarchitecture, but rather reveling in its potential to distort, twist, fragment, and otherwise subvert modernist conventions and the architectural forms they support.

Yet all structures, whether hidden from view or boldly expressed, follow the same laws of equilibrium, are exposed to the same types of forces and are constrained by the same material properties and manufacturing practices. It is, therefore, appropriate for architects and builders to study structures in such a way that the basic principles underlying all structural form become clear. This can be accomplished in three phases: (1) by studying the concepts of statics and strength of
materials, (2) by learning how these concepts are applied to the design of common structural elements fabricated from real materials, and (3) by gaining insight into the design of structural systems comprised of structural elements interconnected in a coherent pattern. Much of the material presented in this text can be found elsewhere; the basic conditions of equilibrium, historical insights into structural behavior that form the basis for structural design, and recommendations for design procedures incorporated into building codes are all widely disseminated through industry-published
manuals, government-sanctioned codes, and academic texts. Many excellent structures texts have been written specifically for architects and builders.

Structural Elements for Architects and Builders


Content :
  • CHAPTER 1 Statics
  • CHAPTER 2 Loads
  • CHAPTER 3 Material properties
  • CHAPTER 4 Sectional properties
  • CHAPTER 5 Design approaches
  • CHAPTER 6 Tension elements
  • CHAPTER 7 Columns
  • CHAPTER 8 Beams
  • CHAPTER 9 Connections


Download Structural Elements for Architects and Builders free PDF

LINK

Seismic Design of Steel Structures

Seismic Design of Steel Structures

Victor Gioncu, Federico Mazzolani

Preference :

This book, titled Seismic Design of Steel Structures, represents the natural conclusion of twenty years of common activity between Victor and myself, which was finalized to give a substantial contribution to seismic design in general and in particular to seismic-resistant steel structures. The
predicted passage from local to global behavior was developed by taking into account the output of the first and second volumes. The whole material has been divided into six chapters.

Chapter 1, “Failure of a Myth,” starts from the consideration that steel is usually considered an ideal material for seismic-resistant applications, but some accidents in the last decades of the twentieth century undermined this reputation. These cases are listed in the first chapter, and the main reasons
for the anomalous behavior of steel structures, due to exceptional situations connected both to a lack of knowledge and/or design errors, are clearly identified and explained case by case. The main recent investigations come from the lessons learned from these tragic events.

Chapter 2, “Steel against Earthquakes,” shows how to use steel to resist seismic actions together with the reasons for the excellent behavior of seismic-resistant steel structures in many applications around the world, demonstrating that good design principles generally lead to successful
results.

Chapter 3, “Challenges in Seismic Design,” is devoted to identifying the gap in knowledge on the effects of different types of earthquakes on structural behavior and also considers some important lessons to be learned. It provides a suitable relationship with the main output of the second volume,
Earthquake and Structural Engineering. A distinction is given between strong and low-to-moderate seismic regions also from the point of view of the methodological approach.

Chapter 4, “New Generation of Steel Structures,” represents the heart of the book, illustrating the most advanced seismic-resistant structural systems based on the use of steel. Starting from the systems that improve existing solutions, that is, EBF (eccentric braces), RBS (dog-bone), and BRB
(buckling restrained braces), new bracing systems have been analyzed based on the use of steel and aluminum panels in the form of full-bay, partial-bay, and bracing types. These innovative systems are also applied to the seismic upgrading of existing RC buildings. Finally, new connecting systems for
beam-to-column nodes, based on posttensioned energy-dissipating (PTED) connections, are also illustrated.

Seismic Design of Steel Structures


Content :
  • Failure of a myth
  • Challenges in seismic design.
  • New generation of steel structures
  • Advances in steel beam ductility
  • Fire after earthquake
  • Structural behavior under the effect of fire
  • Analysis assumptions
  • Structural behavior
  • Methodology for assessing robustness


Download Seismic Design of Steel Structures free PDF

LINK

Design of Columns Spreadsheet

Design of Columns Spreadsheet



Columns are classified as short or long depending on their slenderness ratios. Short columns
usually, fail when their materials are overstressed and long columns usually fail due to buckling
which produces secondary moments resulting from the P - D effect.
Columns are classified according to the way they are reinforced into tied and spirally reinforced
columns. Columns are usually reinforced with longitudinal and transverse reinforcement. When
this transverse reinforcement is in the form of ties, the column is called “tied”. If the transverse
reinforcement is in the form of helical hoops, the column is called “spirally reinforced”.
Since the failure of columns often cause extensive damage, they are designed with a higher factor of
safety than beams.

Columns are divided into three types according to the way they are reinforced:
1-Tied Columns
A tied column is a column in which the longitudinal reinforcement bars are
tied together with separate smaller diameter transverse bars (ties) spaced at some interval along
the column height. These ties help to hold the longitudinal reinforcement bars in place during
construction and ensure the stability of these bars against local buckling. The cross sections of such
columns are usually square, rectangular, or circular in shape. A minimum of four bars is used in

rectangular and circular cross-sections.

2-Spirally-Reinforced Columns
They are columns in which the longitudinal bars are arranged in a circle surrounded by a closely
spaced continuous spiral. These columns are usually circular or square in

shape. A minimum of six bars is used for longitudinal reinforcement.

3-Composite Columns
A composite column is a column made of structural steel shapes or pipes surrounded by or filled

by concrete with or without longitudinal reinforcement.


LINK

Structural Steel Designer’s Handbook, Third Edition

Structural Steel Designer’s Handbook, Third Edition

Roger L Brockenbrough

Preference :

Steels for structural uses may be classified by chemical composition, tensile properties, and
method of manufacture as carbon steels, high-strength low-alloy steels (HSLA), heat-treated
carbon steels, and heat-treated constructional alloy steels. A typical stress-strain curve for a
steel in each classification is shown in Fig. 1.1 to illustrate the increasing strength levels
provided by the four classifications of steel. The availability of this wide range of specified
minimum strengths, as well as other material properties, enables the designer to select an
economical material that will perform the required function for each application.
Some of the most widely used steels in each classification are listed in Table 1.1 with
their specified strengths in shapes and plates. These steels are weldable, but the welding
materials and procedures for each steel must be in accordance with approved methods. Weld-
ing information for each of the steels is available from most steel producers and in
publications of the American Welding Society.

This edition of the handbook has been updated throughout to reflect continuing changes in
design trends and improvements in design specifications. Criteria and examples are included

for both allowable-stress design (ASD) and load-and-resistance-factor design (LRFD) meth-
ods, but an increased emphasis has been placed on LRFD to reflect its growing use in

practice.
Numerous connection designs for building construction are presented in LRFD format in
conformance with specifications of the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC). A
new article has been added on the design of hollow structural sections (HSS) by LRFD,
based on a new separate HSS specification by AISC. Also, because of their growing use in
light commercial and residential applications, a new section has been added on the design
of cold-formed steel structural members, based on the specification by the American Iron
and Steel Institute (AISI). It is applicable to both ASD and LRFD.
Design criteria are now presented in separate parts for highway and railway bridges to

better concentrate on those subjects. Information on highway bridges is based on specifica-
tions of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO)

and information on railway bridges is based on specifications of the American Railway
Engineering and Maintenance-of-Way Association (AREMA). A very detailed example of
the LRFD design of a two-span composite I-girder highway bridge has been presented in

Section 11 to illustrate AASHTO criteria, and also the LRFD design of a single-span com-
posite bridge in Section 12. An example of the LRFD design of a truss member is presented

in Section 13.
This edition of the handbook regrettably marks the passing of Fred Merritt, who worked
tirelessly on previous editions, and developed many other handbooks as well. His many
contributions to these works are gratefully acknowledged.

Download Structural Steel Designer’s Handbook, Third Edition


Content :
  • 1. Properties of Structural Steels and Effects of Steelmaking and Fabrication
  • 2. Fabrication and Erection
  • 3. General Structural Theory
  • 4. Analysis of Special Structures
  • 5. Connections
  • 6. Building Design Criteria
  • 7. Design of Building Members
  • 8. Floor and Roof Systems
  • 9. Lateral-Force Design
  • 10. Cold-Formed Steel Design
  • 11. Design Criteria for Bridges
  • 12. Beam and Girder Bridges
  • 13. Truss Bridges
  • 14. Arch Bridges
  • 15. Cable-Suspended Bridges


Download Structural Steel Designer’s Handbook, Third Edition free PDF

LINK

One Way Slab Design Spreadsheets to Eurocode 2

One Way Slab Design Spreadsheets to Eurocode 2 



Slab consists of two types which are one way slab and two way slabs.
One way slab has two types namely simply supported slab and one way
continuous slab. While two way slabs also consist of two types namely simply
supported two way slab and constrained slab. Slab types can be decided
through side ratio calculation through BS8 110 reference such as:

  • Ly / Lx <2.0 (two way)
  • Ly / Lx > 2.0 (one-way)

with Ly was longer side and Lx was shorter side.

 A slab is called one-way if the main reinforcement designs within one
direction only. This situation happens if slab is supported only on two sides
only. If slab were supported at all four sides, slab will become one way if
long span ratio (Ly) to short span (Lx) is exceeding 2. Because of slab string
one-way then reinforcement in span direction is main reinforcement, while
reinforcement in direction perpendicular by span known as second
reinforcement which functions as binding main reinforcement and help stress
distribution because of temperature changes and concrete shrinkage.


LINK

Building Materials, Third Edition

Building Materials, Third Edition

S. K. Duggal

Preference :

The book is considerably modified version of the 2000 edition. In third edition of the book
extensive revisions have been made. New materials have been introduced due to the advances
in the technology and progress in industry. The information presented includes characteristics
of the materials in regards to their physical and mechanical properties with emphasis on their
strength and durability qualities. The material presented can be supplemented by the information
from I.S. Codes and various product manufacturers.
This edition embodies material changes in the chapters dealing with Cement, Concrete,
Lime and many others. Testing procedures of the materials have been updated for most of the
materials as some of the codes have been revised. Especially, in chapter 3 on Rocks and Stones
the section on testing of Stones has been completely rewritten.
Chapter 8 on Lime has been completely rewritten to make it more reader friendly. Logical
changes in chapter 5 on Cement, chapter 10 on Concrete and chapter 20 on Special Cements
and Cement Concretes have been made. Admixtures for concrete have been placed in chapter
10 and section on Pointing has been removed from chapter 12 on Building Mortars. Many
newer and upcoming more important concretes such as Self compacting Concrete, Bacterial
Concrete have been introduced in chapter 20 on special Cements and Cement Concrete.
Numerous revision of data and substitutions in description have been made not only in these
chapters but in other chapters also. Smart materials and composite materials have been
introduced in chapter 21 on Miscellaneous Materials.
The author will be grateful to the readers for their comments and suggestions for further
improvement of the book.

Building materials have an important role to play in this modern age of technology. Although
their most important use is in construction activities, no field of engineering is conceivable
without their use. Also, the building materials industry is an important contributor in our
national economy as its output governs both the rate and the quality of construction work.
There are certain general factors which affect the choice of materials for a particular scheme.
Perhaps the most important of these is the climatic background. Obviously, different materials
and forms of construction have developed in different parts of the world as a result of climatic
differences. Another factor is the economic aspect of the choice of materials. The rapid advance
of constructional methods, the increasing introduction of mechanical tools and plants, and
changes in the organisation of the building industry may appreciably influence the choice of
materials.
Building Materials, Third Edition



Content :
  • Principal Properties of Building Materials
  • Structural Clay Products
  • Rocks and Stones
  • Wood and Wood Products
  • Materials for Making Concrete-I Cement
  • Materials for Making Concrete-II Aggregates
  • Materials for Making Concrete-III Water
  • Materials for Making Concrete-IV Lime
  • Puzzolanas
  • Concrete
  • Concrete Mix Design
  • Building Mortars
  • Ferrous Metals
  • Non-Ferrous Metals
  • Ceramic Materials
  • Polymeric Materials
  • Paints, Enamels and Varnishes
  • Tar, Bitumen and Asphalt
  • Special Cements and Cement Concretes


Download Building Materials, Third Edition free PDF

LINK

Parking Structures: Recommended Practice for Design and Construction

Parking Structures: Recommended Practice for Design and Construction


Parking structures have become important elements in today’s urban and suburban
environments. Owners have realized that parking services represent the first and last
impression a visitor receives of the facility, and that can be a pivotal factor when con-
sumers decide where to do business. Even more, owners and designers both are
acknowledging that parking structures must be designed specifically for the types of
visitors that structure will serve, based on the facilities they support and the flow of
daily traffic.
The need to create a parking structure that precisely fits the needs of the users can-
not be stressed enough. Unless the facility is user-friendly, projecting a safe, secure,

and easy to use environment, parkers will find other options. These needs have

become too vital to their peace of mind to be left unmet by the owner and designer.
As a result, creating the best parking structure for the site, users, and budget requires
a careful balance of all elements and a logical plan from start to finish. From the ini-
tial conception basics are decided until the parking structure opens, a host of choic-
es must be made that will affect the final design and cost of the project—which ulti-

mately will impact its value to the customer.


“High-performance concrete” has been part of the day-to-day operation in the pro-
duction of precast prestressed concrete since the first elements were cast. High

cement content and low water/cement ratios result in high early-strength and high
ultimate-strength concrete with low permeability thereby providing resistance to
chloride ion penetration.

The dramatic and overpowering effect of the water/cement ratio on the chloride per-
meability of concrete (see 1.1) requires that the potential advantages of “high perfor-
mance” concrete, such as low water/cement-ratio, heat-cured concretes or those con-
taining admixtures such as silica fume, be examined for comparison using realistic

water/cement values for project applications.
One such comparison would be of a conventional cast-in-place concrete parking

structure for which no specialty contractors or materials would be required. The con-
crete used in this hypothetical structure would be 0.46 w/c burlap-cured or 0.46 w/c

burlap-cured concrete with 5.0 or 7.5 percent silica fume. A 0.37 w/c heat-cured con-
crete would be used in the precast prestressed deck, which has been shown by recent

studies to be superior to the conventional system.
Today’s precast prestressed parking structures supply the standard of excellence
against which other parking structures are measured. A major contributor to that

excellence is the inherent ability of the structure to “breathe” due to the use of con-
nections between components. This design technique, used in all precast construc-
tion, allows the parking structure to relieve pressure from the ordinary expansion and


contraction that otherwise would cause cracking in the structural members.

LINK

Refurbishment and Repair in Construction

Refurbishment and Repair in Construction

David Doran, James Douglas and Richard Pratley

Preference :

Refurbishment and repair of a building or structure can be a daunting task – probably a more difficult enterprise than is generally realised. It may be necessary to reconstruct a building for modern use but to preserve its appearance to match
its original style. To achieve success it is often necessary to have a deep knowledge of the
construction history and of the materials used in the original work. Seeking this knowledge can be difficult, even tedious. There is a great deal of available data but a major problem is to know where and how to look for this information. Any new work has to be carried out within a complex maze of legal frameworks which probably did not exist at the time of the original construction.
This book seeks to assist those embarking on such work, highlights possible pitfalls and suggests strategies which will minimize the risk involved.

It is generally accepted that approximately 50% of construction work involves repair and refurbishment (figures from the Building Cost Information Service, BCIS). Recent estimates have put the total value of construction at £80bn per annum, so the value of refurbishment must be in the order of £40bn. More surprisingly, it has recently been stated that more than 30% of new build contracts require remedial repairs before contract completion. This essentially practical book has been designed
to meet the challenge of this type of work and is a companion to Site Engineers Manual, which was first published in 2004.

All construction is risk intensive but it is the contention of the editor that repair
and refurbishment may carry risks in excess of those facing a developer building on
a green field site (see also Chapter 2). The book, inter alia, explores some of these
risks and suggests ways in which they may be minimised. Chrimes, in the above
mentioned article, lists the following questions to be answered before proceeding
with work on existing structures:
• Where is it?
• How old is it?
• Is it the first building on the site?
• Who designed it?
• What were the original ground conditions like?
• What kind of foundations has it got?

This book attempts to provide clues to answer these questions and many others.
Advice is given on sources to approach to find records of existing construction.
Regrettably, in recent years, many records have been destroyed and only intensive
survey investigation employing non-destructive and invasive methods can reveal an
accurate picture of the construction and condition of a structure. The penalty for not
so doing can be penal. In a recently reported case £30,000 of additional cost was
incurred for repairs to undisclosed, defective roof timbers. This amounted to 30% of
the original budget for the project.

Refurbishment and Repair in Construction


Content :
  • Introduction
  • Risks
  • Discovery: including sources of information
  • Types of contract
  • Types of construction: disasters, defects and potential solutions
  • Legal Restraints
  • Case Studies


Download Refurbishment and Repair in Construction free PDF

LINK

Design Laterally Loaded Elastic Piles Spreadsheet

Design Laterally Loaded Elastic Piles Spreadsheet



Understanding and mastering the seismic analysis and design of deep foundations is a challenging yet essential element of the advanced education of students in the field of civil engineering. Our past experience in the academic context of helping students achieve the desired outcomes had been a frustrating endeavor, given the time and effort invested. It is in part in response the need to provide a leaner and more efficient learning and teaching approach that the work described in this paper evolved. In essence, the transfer of lateral loads from deep foundations to the subsurface strata is a complex soil-structure interaction problem. The movements and flexural stresses in the pile depend on the soil resistance, while the soil resistance is a function of the deformations of the pile itself. Furthermore, the ultimate resistance of a vertical pile to a lateral load and the deflection of the pile as the load builds up to its ultimate value are complex and involve the interaction between a semi-rigid structural element and soils which deforms partly elastically and partly plastically. Given the typically limited time and resources allocated to this topic in a three credit course, as other equally relevant applications are to be covered, imparting sufficient and fundamental understanding of this applied problem constitutes a real challenge that the spreadsheet approach presented herein attempted to meet.


LINK

Advanced Analysis and Design of Steel Frames

Advanced Analysis and Design of Steel Frames

Guo-Qiang Li, Jin-Jun Li

Preference :

With advantages in high strength, good ductility and fast fabrication and erection, steel frames are widely used for industrial, commercial and residential buildings. Currently, the common procedures for the structural design of steel frames worldwide are: (1) to conduct linearly elastic structural analysis to determine the resultants of structural members under various actions; and (2) to check the resultants against the limit states of structural members specified in the codes, based on the reliability theory for the limit state of structural members. However, drawbacks of the current approach exist in the following two aspects.
Firstly, the normal elastic analysis of steel frames takes account of only typical flexural, shear and axial deformations of frame components, and cannot consider effects such as shear deformation of joint-panels, flexibility of beam-to-column connections, brace buckling and nonprismatic sections (tapered members). Also, material and geometric nonlinearities and imperfection (residual stress and initial geometric imperfection) cannot be involved in linearly elastic analysis. Secondly, the structural members of a frame is generally in an elasto-plastic state when they approach limit states, whereas the member resultants used in limit state check are taken from the linearly elastic analysis of the frame. The incompatibility of the member resultants obtained in structural analysis for limit state check and those in real limit state results in uncertain member reliability.
To overcome the drawback mentioned above, the concept of Advanced Design has been proposed.
Second-order inelastic analysis is used in Advanced Design of steel frames to determine the structural
ultimate capacities, which considers all the effects significant for structural nonlinear behavior and is termed as advanced analysis. A large amount of achievements have been made in the past two decades on advanced analysis of steel frames. However, in the view of structural design, the reliability evaluation of structural systems should be incorporated into advanced analysis to make the steel frames designed have certain system reliability. Such structural design with definite system reliability is termed as advanced design. Unfortunately, little progress was reported in this area. In this book, a concept of reliability-based advanced design is developed and proposed for steel frames.
The first author of this book began to study the theory of structural reliability design in 1982 when he was in Chongqing Institute of Architecture and Engineering for his Master degree and began to study the theory of advanced analysis for steel frames in 1985 when he was in Tongji University for his PhD degree. The main contents of this book are actually the summarization of our research achievements in structural reliability design and advanced analysis of steel frames for over 20 years, including the contribution from Ms. Yushu Liu and Ms. Xing Zhao, who are the former PhD students of the first author. Two parts are included in this book. Part One is advanced analysis for beam (prismatic beam, tapered beam and composite beam), column, joint-panel, connection, brace, and shear beam elements in steel frames, and methods for stability analysis, nonlinear analysis and seismic analysis of steel frames.
 Part Two is reliability-based advanced design for steel portal frames and multi-storey frames.
We are grateful for the advice from Prof. Jihua Li and Prof. Zuyan Shen who supervised the first author’s Master and PhD degree study and guide him to an attractive field in structural engineering.

Advanced Analysis and Design of Steel Frames


Content :
  • Introduction
  • Elastic Stiffness Equation of Prismatic Beam Element
  • Elastic Stiffness Equation of Tapered Beam Element
  • Elastic Stiffness Equation of Composite Beam Element
  • Sectional Yielding and Hysteretic Model of Steel Beam-Columns
  • Hysteretic Behaviour of Composite Beams
  • Elasto-Plastic Stiffness Equation of Beam Element
  • Elastic and Elasto-Plastic Stiffness Equations of Column Element
  • Effects of Joint Panel and Beam-Column Connection
  • Brace Element and its Elastic and Elasto-Plastic Stiffness Equations
  • Shear Beam and its Elastic and Elasto-Plastic Stiffness Equations
  • Elastic Stability Analysis of Planar Steel Frames
  • Nonlinear Analysis of Planar Steel Frames
  • Response Analysis of Planar Steel Frames
  • Analysis Model for Space Steel Frames
  • Development of Structural Design Approach
  • Structural System Reliability Calculation
  • System Reliability Assessment of Steel Frames
  • Based Advanced Design of Steel Frames


Download Advanced Analysis and Design of Steel Frames free PDF

LINK

Engineered Concrete: Mix Design and Test Methods, Second Edition

Engineered Concrete: Mix Design and Test Methods, Second Edition

Irving Kett

Preference :

The purpose of this book is to familiarize civil engineering and technology students with two of
the most important materials of construction, portland cement (PC) and portland cement concrete
(PCC). People frequently make the mistake of using these terms interchangeably. The book aims
to assist students in gaining an understanding of PC and PCC through the physical handling and
testing of these materials in the laboratory environment. While the book was primarily written for
use at the college level, it also may serve as a practical guide for the graduate engineer and laboratory
technician.
The body of this book is divided into several sections. The first explains how concrete batches
are designed, mixed, and measured for various consistencies in a special section entitled Mix Design
Procedures. Section II details the tests of the primary component materials of concrete other than
water, namely portland cement, aggregates, and mortar. Section III includes some of the fundamental
concrete testing procedures for different strength parameters in conformity with the standards of
the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM). There probably will never be enough laboratory
time to complete all of the test procedures, even in a 15-week semester.
The testing procedures included herein are intended to accurately reflect the specific ASTM
designations, sometimes with modifications dictated by the inherent time constraints of a school
laboratory. Therefore, in certain cases, such as in securing the specific gravities and absorption of
aggregates, modifications were introduced to fit the usual 3-hour laboratory module. Where the
particular ASTM method permits alternate procedures, only the one deemed more applicable to the
teaching situation was chosen.
The unique property of all products utilizing hydraulic cements is the interval required to obtain
test specimens and its time sensitivity. For this reason considerable time must elapse between
specimen preparation and testing. This complicates the scheduling process when planning a course
in portland cement concrete and makes this laboratory unique. Sample course outlines for both a
10-week academic quarter and a 15-week semester are included in Appendix F. It is recommended
that the 5 additional weeks in the semester module be utilized for additional testing on aggregates,
cement, and mortar. The same number of periods are shown to be devoted to portland cement
concrete testing in both schedules.
The U.S. is in a transition from the U.S. Standard System of Measurements to the S.I. (International
System) Metric System. Since both will be used for some time, the S.I. will be the primary
measurement shown with the equivalent U.S. Standard in parentheses. A soft conversion between
the two systems was used. Therefore, the two measurements are not identical.

Engineered Concrete: Mix Design and Test Methods, Second Edition


Content :
  • INTRODUCTION
  • TESTS FOR AGGREGATES, PORTLAND CEMENT, AND MORTAR
  • TESTS FOR PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE
  • Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens
  • Flexural Strength of Concrete Using Simple Beam with Third-Point Loading
  • Unit Weight, Yield, and Air Content of Concrete
  • Slump of Hydraulic Cement Concrete
  • Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by the Volumetric Method
  • Making and Curing Concrete Test Specimens in the Laboratory
  • Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by the Pressure Method
  • Bond Strength of Concrete Developed with Reinforcing Steel
  • Ball Penetration in Fresh Portland Cement Concrete
  • Splitting Tensile Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens
  • APPENDICES


Download Engineered Concrete: Mix Design and Test Methods, Second Edition free PDF

LINK