Staircase Analysis and Design Spreadsheet

Staircase Analysis and Design Spreadsheet



Staircases provide means of movement from one floor to another in a structure. Staircases
consist of a number of steps with landings at suitable intervals to provide comfort and safety
for the users.

Types of Stairs
For purpose of design, stairs are classified into two types; transversely, and longitudinally
supported.
a- Transversely supported (transverse to the direction of movement):
Transversely supported stairs include:
§ Simply supported steps supported by two walls or beams or a combination of both.
§ Steps cantilevering from a wall or a beam.
§ Stairs cantilevering from a central spine beam.
b- Longitudinally supported (in the direction of movement):
These stairs span between supports at the top and bottom of a flight and unsupported at the
sides. Longitudinally supported stairs may be supported in any of the following manners:
a. Beams or walls at the outside edges of the landings.
b. Internal beams at the ends of the flight in addition to beams or walls at the outside edges of
the landings.
c. Landings which are supported by beams or walls running in the longitudinal direction.
d. A combination of (a) or (b), and (c).

e. Stairs with quarter landings associated with open-well stairs.


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Prestressed Concrete Design

Prestressed Concrete Design


The purpose of this book is to explain the fundamental principles of design for
prestressed concrete structures, and it is intended for both students and practising
engineers. Although the emphasis is on design—the problem of providing a structure
to fulfil a particular purpose—this can only be achieved if the designer has a sound
understanding of the behaviour of prestressed concrete structures. This behaviour is
described in some detail, with references to specialist literature for further information
where necessary.

Prestressed concrete is the most recent of the major forms of construction to be
introduced into structural engineering. Although several patents were taken out in the
last century for various prestressing schemes, they were unsuccessful because low-
strength steel was used, with the result that long-term effects of creep and shrinkage
of the concrete reduced the prestress force so much that any advantage was lost. It
was only in the early part of the twentieth century that the French engineer Eugène
Freyssinet approached the problem in a systematic way and, using high-strength steel,
first applied the technique of prestressing concrete successfully. Since then
prestressed concrete has become a well-established method of construction, and the
technology is available in most developed, and in many developing, countries. An
account of some of the early developments in prestressed concrete is given in Walley

(1984).The idea of prestressing, or preloading, a structure is not new. Barrels were, and
still are, made from separate wooden staves, kept in place by metal hoops. These are
slightly smaller in diameter than the diameter of the barrel, and are forced into place
over the staves, so tightening them together and forming a watertight barrel .
Cartwheels were similarly prestressed by passing a heated iron tyre around the
wooden rim of the wheel. On cooling, the tyre would contract and be held firmly in
place on the rim, thus strengthening the joints between the spokes and the
rim by putting them into compression.
The technique of prestressing has several different applications within civil
engineering, often being used to keep cables taut when subjected to compressive
forces. However, by far the most common application is in prestressed concrete where
a prestress force is applied to a concrete member, and this induces an axial
compression that counteracts all, or part of, the tensile stresses set up in the member
by applied loading.


Content:


  • Basic principles
  • Properties of materials
  • Limit state design
  • Loss of prestress force
  • Analysis of sections
  • Deflections
  • Shear
  • Prestressing systems and anchorages
  • Design of members
  • Composite construction
  • Indeterminate structures
  • Prestressed flat slabs
  • Design examples
  • Solutions to problems

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CNC Control Setup for Milling and Turning Mastering CNC Control Systems

CNC Control Setup for Milling and Turning Mastering CNC Control Systems

Smid Book

Preference :

Making a certain part (also called a workpiece) doesn't normally start at the CNC machine - it starts much earlier, at the design engineer’s desk. Engineering design means developing an intended part that is economical to make, of high quality, as well as a part that does what it is supposed to do - simply, to design a part that works. This process takes place in various offices and laboratories, research centers, and other places, including engineer’s imagination. Manufacturing process -
CNC process included - is always a cooperative effort. Modern part design requires professionals from different disciplines, aided by a powerful computer installed with suitable design software, for example, SolidWorks®, Autodesk Inventor®, and many others, as well the venerable AutoCad® - one of the oldest and still very popular of the design group of application software. In
simplified terms, engineering design starts with an idea and ends with the development of a drawing - or a series of drawings - that can be used in manufacturing at various stages.

For the CNC programmer as well as the CNC operator, this engineering drawing is the first source, and often the only source, of information about what the final part is to be. Typically, CNC programmer follows a certain process - or workflow - that can be summarized into a
several critical points or steps:
  • Evaluate drawing
  • Identify material of the part
  • Determine part holding method
  • Select suitable tools
  • Decide on cutting conditions
  • Write the program
  • Verify the program
  • Complete documentation
  • Send program to machine shop

Keep in mind that this is not always the step-by-step method as it may appear to be. Often, a decision made in one step influences a decision made in another step, which often leads to revisiting earlier stages of the process and making necessary changes.

CNC Control Setup for Milling and Turning Mastering CNC Control Systems


Content :
  • CONCEPTS OF CNC MACHINING
  • CNC MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS.
  • PROGRAM INTERPRETATION
  • CONTROL SYSTEM
  • OPERATION PANEL
  • SETUP HANDLE.
  • MILLING TOOLS - SETUP
  • SETTING PART ZERO
  • WORK OFFSET SETTINGS.
  • TOOL LENGTH OFFSET.
  • MACHINING A PART
  • MACHINING HOLES
  • OFFSET CHANGE BY PROGRAM.
  • SYSTEM PARAMETERS.
  • PROGRAM OPTIMIZATION


Download CNC Control Setup for Milling and Turning Mastering CNC Control Systems free PDF

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Earthquake Engineering for Structural Design

Earthquake Engineering for Structural Design


Earthquakes were the cause of more than 1.5 million deaths worldwide during the
20th Century. During the beginning of the 21st Century the number of deaths was
about half a million. This is an unacceptable finding, because earthquakes can no
longer be regarded as natural disasters, since the main cause of this huge number of
casualties is the inadequate seismic resistance of the building stock, lifelines and
industry, which could be avoided. Earthquakes do not kill people, but the building
collapse can do it. It is an unbelievable situation that, after a century of research
works, each strong earthquake brings new surprises and creates the situation that
new lessons have to be learnt. After a series of devastating earthquakes during the
last years of the past century (1994 Northridge, 1995 Kobe, 1999 Kocaeli and
Taiwan earthquakes), it has been recognized by society that both seismic hazard
and risk have to be reassessed.
Important progress was made in the last period, but many problems remain
unsatisfactorily solved. Therefore, now is the right moment to analyze the level of
current knowledge and to identify the challenges for future research works and for
the next code generation. This is the main intention of this book. The progress in
understanding and controlling the complex phenomena of the earthquake
production can be analyzed both from scientific and practical points of view.
From the scientific point of view, the main effort must be directed towards the
inner understanding of the complex phenomenon of an earthquake. Some new
fundamental disciplines, developed in the last decades, must be deeply studied.


Earthquakes represent the largest potential source of casualties and damage for
inhabited areas due to natural hazard. Although the location varies, the pattern is
the same: an earthquake strikes without warning, leaving cities in rubble and
killing tens to hundreds of thousands of people. Worldwide during the 20th
Century, there were ten earthquakes killing more than 50,000 people and over 100
earthquakes killing more than 1000 people (FEMA 383, 2003). Every year,
something like five thousand to ten thousand people die during earthquakes
worldwide. The 1976 Tangshan-China (magnitude M 8.0), the worst earthquake in
recent times, killed over 600,000. Among these terrifying data, the moderate 1994
Northridge in Los Angeles (magnitude M 6.7), which killed 60 people, and 1995
Kobe in Japan (magnitude M 6.9), which killed 5600 people, seemed to be
relatively insignificant. Nevertheless, these two earthquakes have changed the
direction of earthquake engineering research throughout the World (Blakeborough,
2002). Two main reasons produced this crucial change.
The first reason lies not in the number of dead, but in their economic costs.
Each event was a direct hit by a moderate earthquake on a dense built-up area. In
Northridge, around 15,000 buildings had to be demolished, resulting in a total loss
ranging from $15bn to $40bn. In Kobe, 180,000 buildings were destroyed or
seriously damaged, the repair costs being estimated in the range of $90bn to
$150bn. Each earthquake set a record loss for natural disasters both for the USA
and Japan, respectively. Following these earthquakes, it was immediately apparent
that the old principles for seismic design had to change. Whereas the previous
principles had been primarily oriented to safeguard buildings against collapse, the
new and more refined rules are devoted to reduce the damage costs, by keeping the
non-structural elements and the structures in an acceptable damage level. So, the
principles of Performance Based Seismic Design were set up

LINK

Mechanics of Materials Sixth Edition

Mechanics of Materials Sixth Edition 


The main objective of a basic mechanics course should be to develop
in the engineering student the ability to analyze a given problem in

a simple and logical manner and to apply to its solution a few fun-
damental and well-understood principles. This text is designed for

the first course in mechanics of materials—or strength of materials—
offered to engineering students in the sophomore or junior year. The
authors hope that it will help instructors achieve this goal in that
particular course in the same way that their other texts may have
helped them in statics and dynamics.
is expected that students using this text will have completed a
course in statics. However, Chap. 1 is designed to provide them with
an opportunity to review the concepts learned in that course, while
shear and bending-moment diagrams are covered in detail in Secs.
5.2 and 5.3. The properties of moments and centroids of areas are
described in Appendix A; this material can be used to reinforce the
discussion of the determination of normal and shearing stresses in beams


Content :
Introduction—Concept of Stress
Stress and Strain—Axial Loading
Torsion
Pure Bending
Analysis and Design of Beams for Bending
Shearing Stresses in Beams and Thin-Walled Members
Transformations of Stress and Strain
Principal Stresses under a Given Loading
Deflection of Beams
Columns
Energy Methods

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Modeling and Analysis with Induction Generators

Modeling and Analysis with Induction Generators

Felix A. Farret, M. Godoy Simões

Preference :

During the fall of 2003, the authors decided to bring together their interests and
start working on what would be the first edition of this book, published in 2004.
The reasoning was that although so many books have been written on induction
machines, drives, and motors in general, none existed at that time that would cover
specifically how to understand, model, analyze, and simulate induction generators,
particularly in the applications of renewable or alternative energy systems.
In the second edition, we shortened a few sections and added new ones, trying to
make clear some concepts. We have also provided better coverage of doubly fed
induction generators and applications of induction generators. Over the years, we
noticed how important induction generators became both for stand-alone and gridconnected
applications. The number of installations of small- and medium-sized
wind energy power plants based on this very easy, cost-effective, and reliable generating
machine is remarkable, to the point of making us even more enthusiastic
about this subject.
Now, more than a decade after we first started this project, we are very proud to
present this third edition, with a new title that focuses on our objectives, that is, to
present the fundamentals and advances in modeling and analysis of induction generators.
Topics like understanding the process of self-excitation, numerical analysis
of stand-alone and multiple induction generators, requirements for optimized laboratory
experimentation, application of modern vector control, optimization of power
transference, use of doubly fed induction generators, computer-based simulations,
and social and economic impacts are presented in order to take the academic realm
of the subject to the desks of practicing engineers and undergraduate and graduate
students. Our intention in this new edition of the book has been to move from a
research-oriented approach toward a more educational approach. Therefore, we have
provided several solved problems and further suggested problems at the end of each
chapter. We would really love to receive feedback regarding how instructors are
using and adapting this textbook in their courses.
Part of our intent is to give ideas and suggest directions for further development
in this field; the reader is also referred to other sources for details regarding development.
As teachers and researchers, we realize the importance of feedback and
appreciate any comments and suggestions for improvements that might add value to
the material we have presented.

Modeling and Analysis with Induction Generators

Content :
  • Principles of Alternative Sources of Energy and Electric Generation
  • Steady-State Model of Induction Generators
  • Transient Model of Induction Generators
  • Self-Excited Induction Generators
  • General Characteristics of Induction Generators
  • Construction Features of Induction Generators
  • Power Electronics for Interfacing Induction Generators
  • Scalar Control for Induction Generators
  • Optimized Control for Induction Generators
  • Doubly Fed Induction Generators
  • Simulation Tools for Induction Generators
  • Applications of Induction Generators in Alternative Sources of Energy
  • Economics of Induction Generator–Based Renewable Systems


Download Modeling and Analysis with Induction Generators, Third Edition free PDF

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Understanding Structural Analysis Third Edition

Understanding Structural Analysis Third Edition


This book is aimed at the identification oJ the fundamental princiPles of
structural analysis together with the develoPment oI a sound understanding
of structural behaviour. This combination leads to the ability to arrive at
a numerical solution.
Using a series of structural diagrams as a visual lanSuage ol
structural behaviour that can be understood with the minimum oJ textual
comments, the book aims to develop a qualitative understanding of the
response of the structure to load. It is ideally suited to under8raduates
studying indeterminate framed structures as Part of a core course in civil
or structural engineerinS' but it is also suitable, because of its
qualitative approach, for students of architecture and building technology.
The book is in two parts. Part I' the first lour chapters, deals with
the development ol qualitative skiils; that is' the ability to Produce a
non-numerical solution to the loaded line-dia8ram ol a structure. It is
considered that the ability to arrive at the qualitative solution to framed
structures is a significantly imlortant component of the overall
understanding of structural behaviour.
Part II deals with current methods of structural analysis using the
diagrammatic format to which the student has become accustomed.
The need lor the developrrent of qualitative skills increases with the
increasing use of the computer in design offices. In the near future, the
computer will replace the majority ol analysis and structural desiSn
calculations. Unfortunately, this will also have the elfect of eliminating
much of the experience and consequent understanding gained by the student
and trainee engineer.


The subject of this book is the behaviour and analysis of statically
indeterminate structures. However, this first chapter reviews the
behaviour of deterninate structures, a thorough understanding of which
is essential before the topic of indeterminacy can be tackled. The text
assumes a basic knowled8e of mechanics including an understandin8 of
the principles of overall equilibrium, bending moments, shear and axial
forces.
It is possible to analyse determinate structures by consideration of
equilibrium - in general terms, the application ol force and moment
eouarions v 1 O. d = 0 and lt = 0.
With most real structures, this is not possible as the presence ol
redundant members (secondary load paths) makes it necessary to consider
relative member delormation beJore a solution of the structure can be
attained. The number of unknowns which cannot be lound Jrom equilibrium
considerations is known as the degree oJ statical indeterminacy.
The design oJ engineering structures usually starts from a need to
sostain loads. Initially though, it requires an understanding ol the way in
which a proposed system of members can provide the required support, and
how it will deform.
It is, however, clear that an understandin8 oi the behaviour of
statically indeterninate systems is based upon a thorou8h appreciation
cf deterrirrate systems.
This chapter develops the relationship between load and delormation for
a range of structures which are amenable to solution by the application of
equilibrium alone.

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Troubleshooting and Repair of Diesel Engines, Fourth Edition

Troubleshooting and Repair of Diesel Engines, Fourth Edition

 Paul Dempsey

Preference :

There are several areas that have changed drastically during the last few years with
diesel engines and will greatly affect the near future of diesel engine technologies. The
highway trucking industry was the first to require these changes to meet federal EPA
emissions guidelines for diesel engines back in the late 1980s. In the mid-1990s these
same guidelines were required of the off-highway heavy equipment industry. Now
even areas not affected in the past such as the marine, petroleum, and agricultural
industries have come under these new requirements. They will change these indus-
tries in the same way they have previously changed the trucking and heavy equipment
industries. During the last 20 years only certain engine horsepower sizes or industries
have come under these federal guidelines. However, the 2007, 2010, and 2012 emis-
sions guidelines will cover and affect all horsepower sizes and industries. Additionally,
in most areas the current technologies to meet the 2007 guidelines will not completely
meet the 2010 and 2012 requirements without additional technological changes or
improvements.

These technological changes are inevitable and future technician training needs
will be a reality. This is where diesel engine course books like Troubleshooting and
Repairing Diesel Engines can help the technician stay current with these changing
technologies. To show how rapidly these changes have taken place, information of
some past and current examples of those areas affected are mentioned.
Since the inception of the EPA guidelines for diesel engines back in the 1980s, most
major engine manufacturers have meant the following reductions. Engine particulates
have been reduced by 90% and nitrous oxides by nearly 70%. Added to the equation
in the 1990s was noise pollution, with reductions required in engine noise levels from
83 to 80 decibels. Although this doesn’t seem like much, it is equal to a 50% noise
energy reduction. Add to that the effects of the reduction in fuel sulfur in diesel fuels

from 5% to 0.5% to 0.05% (in ppm, 5000 to 500 to 50). Sulfur being the lubricating ele-
ment in diesel fuels has required many changes to fuel system components.

Troubleshooting and Repair of Diesel Engines, Fourth Edition

Content :
  • Rudolf Diesel
  • Diesel basics
  • Engine installation
  • Basic troubleshooting
  • Mechanical fuel systems
  • Electronic management systems
  • Cylinder heads and valves
  • Engine mechanics
  • Air systems
  • Electrical fundamentals
  • Starting and generating systems
  • Cooling systems
  • Greener diesels


Download Troubleshooting and Repair of Diesel Engines, Fourth Edition free PDF

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Beam Analysis Spreadsheet

Beam Analysis Spreadsheet



The "BeamAnal" calculates Shear Force, Bending Moment and Deflection at 31 positions along the member length. Member Lengths can be a single span simply supported or a 2, 3 or 4 span continuous over middle supports. The analysis results are produced in a tabular form and are also plotted in 3 graphs for rapid comprehension.
The program uses usual equations for Shear Force, Bending Moment and Deflection equations along the member span. When middle supports are specified, simultaneous equations are set up and solved to calculate the middle support reactions.

The program internally works in consistent Force and Length Units. To help comprehend results, use of mixed units is allowed. Inertia and elastic modulus of the member section can therefore be defined in any units. Similarly, any desired units can be set deflection values. To specify units, go to the Units sheet and describe your own units of Force, Distance, Inertia, Modulus and Deflection. You need to calculate and specify conversion factors from consistent units to your chosen mixed units. Sample values are given for your guidance in this sheet. The units cannot however be mixed in one project file. Chosen units apply to all beams in the file. This means that if units are changed in the middle of building up a data file, beam properties for all beams need to be re-defined to match the chosen units.



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Eurocode-Compliant Seismic Analysis and Design of R/C Buildings

Eurocode-Compliant Seismic Analysis and Design of R/C Buildings


This book aims to serve as an essential reference to facilitate civil engineers
involved in the design of new conventional (ordinary) reinforced concrete (r/c)
buildings regulated by the current European Eurocode 8 or EC8 (EN 1998-1:2004)
and EC2 (EN 1992-1-1:2004) codes of practice. It is addressed to practitioners
working in consulting and designing engineering companies and to advanced
undergraduate and postgraduate level civil engineering students attending modules
and curricula in the earthquake-resistant design of structures and/or undertaking
pertinent design projects. The book constitutes an updated and significantly
extended version of a textbook co-authored by the first four authors published in
2011 in the Greek language. The changes and amendments incorporated into the
current book discuss the recent trends in performance-based seismic design of
structures and provide additional practical guidance on finite element modelling
of r/c building structures for code-compliant seismic analysis methods.
It is emphasized that this book is neither a comprehensive text on the design of
earthquake-resistant structures nor does it offer a complete commentary on the EC8
provisions. To this end, it presumes that the “user”:
• Has sufficient knowledge of the fundamental concepts, principles, and methods
of structural analysis for both static and dynamic loads pertinent to the
earthquake-resistant design of structures and of r/c design
• Has access to and appreciation of the EC8 (EN 1998-1:2004) and EC2
(EN 1992-1-1:2004) codes of practice
The book is split notionally into two parts. The first part comprises the first three
chapters in which:
• The fundamental principles for earthquake-resistant design are introduced and
discussion and comments are included on how these principles reflect on the
current EC8 (EN 1998-1:2004) code and on several international guidelines for

performance-based seismic design of structures (Chap. 1).


The second part of the book (Chap. 4) includes three numerical example
problems, solved in detail, to illustrate the implementation of various clauses of
the EC8 for the seismic analysis and design of three different multistorey buildings.
The properties and structural layouts of the considered buildings are judicially
chosen to achieve the necessary simplicity to serve as general benchmark structures
while maintaining important features commonly encountered in real-life design
scenarios. In this regard, these benchmark example problems provide for:
• A comprehensive illustration of complete and detailed numerical applications to
gain a better appreciation of the flow and the sequence of the required logic and
computational steps involved in the earthquake-resistant design of structures
regulated by the EC8
• Verification tutorials to check the reliability of custom-made computer programs
and of commercial finite element software developed/used for the design of
earthquake-resistant r/c buildings complying with the EC8
The book is complemented by an Appendix discussing the inelastic static
(pushover) analysis of the EC8 which is allowed to be used as an alternative method
to the standard equivalent linear types of analysis for the design of EC8 compliant
r/c building structures. In a second Appendix, the concepts of torsional sensitivity
are delineated using analytical formulae and numerical examples. Lastly, to further
facilitate practitioners, all requirements posed by both the EC2 (EN 1992-1-1:2004)
and the EC8 (EN 1998-1:2004) codes regarding the detailing of r/c structural
members are collected in a concise tabular/graphical format in a third Appendix.
Notably, pertinent selected bibliography is included at the end of each chapter to
direct the reader to appropriate sources discussing some of the herein introduced
material in greater detail.

LINK

Design and Simulation of Four-Stroke Engines

Design and Simulation of Four-Stroke Engines

 Gordon P. Blair

Preference :

It is generally accepted that the theoretical cycle on which the four-stroke engine is based
was proposed by Beau de Rochas in 1876. The fist practical demonstration ofthe engine was
implemented by Otto in 1876. This book is not about the history of the internal-combustion
engine, but realizing that some ofyou may wish to study it, it is recommended that you peruse
the informed writings of Cummins, Obert, Taylor, Caunter, or Ricardo [1.1-1.5]. The book by
Cummins [1.1] is quite an authoritative text in this historical context.
This book is also not about the detailed design of the mechanical components of an
engine, such as crankshafts or connecting rods. For that, one reads elsewhere in the literature.
Nor is it a comprehensive collection ofdesign ideas for the cylinder head, valving, or ducting
geometries of every configuration of four-stroke engine constructed in times past.

This book is about the design of the four-stroke engine so as to achieve its target perfor-
mance characteristics for the application required, irrespective of whether that application is

intended for Formula 1 car racing or a lawnmower. To do that, one must thoroughly under-
stand the filling and emptying of the engine cylinders with air and exhaust gas and the

combustion of the trapped charge within them. Hence, this book is about the unsteady gas

dynamics and thermodynamics associated with the four-stroke engine. Nevertheless, to sensi-
bly design for the performance characteristics, one must bring the real geometry ofthe engine,

its cylinder head, combustion chamber, mifolding, and ducting into the gas dynamic and
thermodynamic design process, otherwise the outcome is meaningless, not to mention useless.
Therefore, very frequently, the real geometry and the measured test data from actual engines
will be produced to illustrate a design point being made. To conduct such a design process, the
only pragmatic approach is to simulate the unsteady gas dynamics and thermodynamics within
the entire engine, basing the simulation on the physical geometry of that engine in the finest
detail, from the aperture where air enters the engine initially to the aperture where the exhaust
gas finally exits from the engine.

Design and Simulation of Four-Stroke Engines

Content :
  • Introduction to the Four-Stroke Engine
  • The Fundamental Method of Operation of a Simple Four-Stroke Engine
  • The Cylinder Head Geometry ofTypical Spark-Ignition Engines
  • The Cylinder Head Geometry of Typical Compression-Ignition Engines
  • The Fundamental Geometry of the Cylinder Head
  • Gas Flow through Four-Stroke Engines
  • Discharge Coefficients of Flow within Four-Stroke Engines
  • Combustion in Four-Stroke Engines
  • Computer Modeling of Four-Stroke Engines
  • Empirical Assistance for the Designer of Four-Stroke Engines
  • Reduction ofNoise Emission from Four-Stroke Engines


Download Design and Simulation of Four-Stroke Engines free PDF

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HANDBOOK OF CIVIL ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS

HANDBOOK OF CIVIL ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS


This handbook presents a comprehensive collection of civil engineering calculation procedures useful to
practicing civil engineers, surveyors, structural designers, drafters, candidates for professional engineering
licenses, and students. Engineers in other disciplines—mechanical, electrical, chemical, environmental,
etc.—will also find this handbook useful for making occasional calculations outside their normal field of
specialty.
Each calculation procedure presented in this handbook gives numbered steps for performing the calculation,
along with a numerical example illustrating the important concepts in the procedure. Many procedures include
“Related Calculations” comments, which expand the application of the computation method presented. All
calculation procedures in this handbook use both the USCS (United States Customary System) and the SI
(System International) for numerical units. Hence, the calculation procedures presented are useful to engineers
throughout the world.
Major calculation procedures presented in this handbook include stress and strain, flexural analysis,
deflection of beams, statically indeterminate structures, steel beams and columns, riveted and welded
connections, composite members, plate girders, load and resistance factor design method (LRFD) for
structural steel design, plastic design of steel structures, reinforced and prestressed concrete engineering and
design, surveying, route design, highway bridges, timber engineering, soil mechanics, fluid mechanics, pumps,
piping, water supply and water treatment, wastewater treatment and disposal, hydro power, and engineering
economics.
Each section of this handbook is designed to furnish comprehensive coverage of the topics in it. Where
there are major subtopics within a section, the section is divided into parts to permit in-depth coverage of each
subtopic.
Civil engineers design buildings, bridges, highways, airports, water supply, sewage treatment, and a variety
of other key structures and facilities throughout the world. Because of the importance of such structures and
facilities to the civilized world, civil engineers have long needed a handbook that would simplify and speed
their daily design calculations. This handbook provides an answer to that need.

HANDBOOK OF CIVIL ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS

Content :
Section 1. Structural Steel Engineering and Design 
Section 2. Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Engineering and Design
Section 3. Timber Engineering
Section 4. Soil Mechanics
Section 5. Surveying, Route Design, and Highway Bridges
Section 6. Fluid Mechanics, Pumps, Piping, and Hydro Power
Section 7. Water-Supply and Storm-Water System Design
Section 8. Sanitary Wastewater Treatment and Control

Section 9. Engineering Economics

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Building Estimation And Costing Using Autodesk Quantity Takeoff

Building Estimation And Costing Using Autodesk Quantity Takeoff


Preference :

Welcome to the world of Computer Aided Building Estimation and Costing. Most
important role of Quantity Surveyors is to estimate the cost of the proposed building;
enabling the contractor to evaluate and determine the feasibility of the project. Hence
accuracy of forecasting the cost of future projects is vital to the success of the business or
organization involving in future construction projects.
A Professional Quantity Surveyor has a comprehensive knowledge of construction,
construction methods, local laws relating to construction projects and accounting, in
order to provide cost and financial advice.
The foundation for a successful cost estimate relies upon reliable identification of the
quantities (takeoff) of the various materials involved in the project. Cost estimators
develop the cost information based on the design developed by the design team members
which will help the team to make budgetary and feasibility determinations.
Course on Computer Aided Building Estimation and Costing lets you use the Autodesk
Quantity Takeoff software in a more systematic way and improve your productivity
accuracy. We truly believe this course would be beneficial to every professional planning
to build a career as a professional Quantity Surveyor as well as, making an experienced
Quantity Surveyor learn the software tools that could compliment their profession.
The systematically organized courseware explains the method to perform a takeoff of
a building based on non-intelligent image formats such as JPG, TIF and PDF and also
from Building Information Models (BIM). It also covers the interactive examination of
3D models, dynamic counting and quantifying the design data and the way of creating
summaries and detailed quantity surveying reports.

Building Estimation And Costing Using Autodesk Quantity Takeoff

Content :
  • Estimation
  • 1.2 Autodesk Quantity Takeoff
  • 1.3 Preferences
  • 1.4 Creating a New Project
  • 1.5 Creating a Catalog
  • 1.6 Creating and Organizing Work Breakdown Structure Takeoff Groups
  • 1. 7 Takeoff Items 
  • 1.8 Creating an Assembly
  • 1.9 Quantity Takeoff
  • 2. Manual Takeoff Tools
  • 3. Using Automatic Takeoff Tools
  • 4 Viewing and Validating Takeoff Data


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Design of Bridge Slab Spreadsheet

Design of Bridge Slab Spreadsheet



Reinforced Slab Bridges used For short spans, a solid reinforced concrete slab, generally cast in-situ rather than precast, is the simplest design to about 25m span, such voided slabs are more economical than prestressed slabs. Slab bridges are defined as structures where the deck slab also serves as the main load-carrying component. The span-to-width ratios are such that these bridges may be designed for simple 1-way bending as opposed to 2-way plate bending. This design guide provides a basic procedural outline for the design of slab bridges using the LRFD Code and also includes a worked example.
The LRFD design process for slab bridges is similar to the LFD design process. Both codes require the main reinforcement to be designed for Strength, Fatigue, Control of Cracking, and Limits of Reinforcement. All reinforcement shall be fully developed at the point of necessity. The minimum slab depth guidelines specified in Table 2.5.2.6.3-1 need not be followed if the reinforcement meets these requirements.
For design, the Approximate Elastic or “Strip” Method for slab bridges found in Article 4.6.2.3 shall be used.
According to Article 9.7.1.4, edges of slabs shall either be strengthened or be supported by an edge beam which is integral with the slab. As depicted in Figure 3.2.11-1 of the Bridge Manual, the #5 d1 bars which extend from the 34 in. F-Shape barrier into the slab qualify as shear reinforcement (strengthening) for the outside edges of slabs. When a 34 in. or 42 in. F-Shape barrier (with similar d1 bars) is used on a slab bridge, its structural adequacy as an edge beam should typically only need to be verified. The barrier should not be considered structural. Edge beam design is required for bridges with open joints and possibly at stage construction lines. If the out-to-out width of a slab bridge exceeds 45 ft., an open longitudinal joint is required.

Design of Bridge Slab Spreadsheet

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Introduction to Thermal and Fluid Engineering

Introduction to Thermal and Fluid Engineering

 Aziz, Abdul; Kraus, Allan D.; Welty, James R

Preference :

This text treats the disciplines of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer, in that
order, as comprising what are generally referred to as the thermal/fluid sciences. The study
of these separate and independent disciplines has been a standard part of the mechanical
and chemical engineering curricula for decades. Other engineering majors have commonly
taken one or more of these subjects but, generally, not all three.
The first component, classical thermodynamics, involves the interaction of work, heat,
and the change in the energy level of a system as it undergoes a change between equilibrium
states. The laws of thermodynamics form a framework by which these state changes are
evaluated and related to measurable properties, most notably temperature. Knowledge of
the thermodynamic limits of processes is essential to the evaluation of energetic systems
and all engineers need such knowledge upon occasion.

The second component, fluid mechanics, treats the change of mass, energy, and momen-
tum associated with the movement of fluids. Mass flow into and out of an open system is

an important part of the overall energy balance for the system. Large, multicomponent sys-
tems such as municipal water supplies, petroleum refineries, and manufacturing facilities

involve numerous pipes, ducts, and other passageways through which fluids are trans-
ported and fluid flow analyses are important for describing the rates at which energetic

processes take place.
The third component of the thermal/fluid sciences is heat transfer. Heat transfer, as one
knows from a study of introductory physics is accomplished by conduction, convection, and
radiation. Each of these modes enables one to evaluate the rate at which heat is transported
between sites that are at different temperatures. Convection heat transfer is intimately
involved with fluid motion and is, therefore, directly coupled to a knowledge of fluid
mechanics.
As mentioned, thermodynamic analysis will determine the limiting equilibrium states

that a process may experience. The project design of an energetic process requires, in addi-
tion to a listing of the appropriate thermodynamic limits, knowledge of the rates at which

the process progresses from its initial to its final states. For example, in the case of a heat
exchanger, the cross-sectional area of the unit is evaluated by the rate of mass throughput
as determined by using fluid mechanics while the length of the unit is determined from the

rate of heat transfer.

Introduction to Thermal and Fluid Engineering

Content :
  • The Thermal/Fluid Sciences: Introductory Concepts
  • Thermodynamics: Preliminary Concepts and Definitions
  • Energy and the First Law of Thermodynamics
  • Properties of Pure, Simple Compressible Substances
  • Control Volume Mass and Energy Analysis
  • The Second Law of Thermodynamics
  • Entropy
  • Gas Power Systems
  • Vapor Power and Refrigeration Cycles
  • Mixtures of Gases, Vapors, and Combustion Products
  • Introduction to Fluid Mechanics
  • Fluid Statics
  • Control Volume Analysis—Mass and Energy Conservation
  • Newton’s Second Law of Motion
  • Dimensional Analysis and Similarity
  • Viscous Flow
  • Flow in Pipes and Pipe Networks
  • Fluid Machinery
  • Steady-State Conduction
  • Unsteady-State Conduction
  • Forced Convection—Internal Flow


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Mechanical Engineering Systems

Mechanical Engineering Systems

 Bill Bolton, Peter Edwards, Richard Gentle

Preference :

The engineering design process, which is what most engineering is all about, can be very convoluted. While it relies heavily on calculation, there is often a need to make educated guesses to start the
calculations. To crack problems like the one above of the new mower you will need to combine technical knowledge with practical experience, a flair for creativity and the confidence to make those educated guesses. The engineering courses that this textbook supports must, therefore, be seen as only the start of a much longer-term learning process that will continue throughout your professional career. A good engineer needs to think of all the subjects that are studied on an undergraduate course in modular chunks as being part of a single body of technical knowledge that will form the foundation on which a career can be built. At the introductory level of this book, it is best
to keep the distinction between the various topics otherwise it can become confusing to the student; it is difficult enough coming to terms with some of the concepts and equations in each topic without
trying to master them all at the same time. The lawnmower example, however, shows that you must be able to understand and integrate all the topics, even though you may not have to become an
expert in all of them if you want to be a proficient engineer.

At last you are starting to get somewhere because the first point will allow you to calculate the size of fan that is required and the power that is needed to drive it. The second point will allow you to calculate the rate at which waste heat from the engine must be supplied to the wet grass. Knowing the waste power and the typical efficiency of this type of engine you can then calculate the overall power that is needed if the engine is to meet this specification to dry the grass cuttings as they are produced.
Once you have the overall power of the engine and the portion of that power that it will take to drive the fan you can calculate the power that is available for the mowing process and for driving the mower’s wheels.These two facts will allow you to use your knowledge of dynamics to
estimate the performance of the mower as a vehicle: the acceleration with and without the blades cutting, the maximum speed up an incline and the maximum driving speed.


Mechanical Engineering Systems

Content :
  • Introduction: the basis of engineering
  • Thermodynamics
  • Fluid mechanics
  • Dynamics
  • Statics
  • Solutions to problems


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