DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE

DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE 

The ninth edition of the best-selling Design of Reinforced Concrete continues the successful tradition of earlier editions by introducing the fundamentals of reinforced concrete design in a clear and understandable manner. The authors ground the design of reinforced concrete in the basic principles of mechanics of solids, so that students may build on their understanding of basic mechanics to learn new concepts such as compressive stress and strain in concrete while applying current ACI Code.The ninth edition has been updated to conform to the 2011 Building Code of the American Concrete Institute (ACI 318-11).Written for an introductory three credit hour undergraduate course on reinforced concrete design, this textbook also has sufficient material for a second three credit hour course. This text is also useful for practicing engineers, as it presents the latest requirements of the ACI design code.


Contents
 Introduction 
Flexural Analysis of Beams
Strength Analysis of Beams According to ACI Code
Design of Rectangular Beams and One-Way Slabs 
Analysis and Design of T Beams and Doubly Reinforced Beams
Serviceability
Bond, Development Lengths, and Splices
Shear and Diagonal Tension
Introduction to Columns
Design of Short Columns Subject to Axial Load and Bending
Slender Columns
Footings
Retaining Walls
Continuous Reinforced Concrete Structures
Torsion
Two-Way Slabs, Direct Design Method
Two-Way Slabs, Equivalent Frame Method 
Walls
Prestressed Concrete

Reinforced Concrete Masonry

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Concrete Basements

Concrete Basements

Basements are common in many new developments, particularly in urban areas. The
reasons for constructing below ground include overcoming planning restrictions on
building height, providing car parking, residential, offi ce, retail and storage/archive
space, and accommodating plant rooms. Basements provide greater total fl oor area,
thus using land to greater effect.
Successful design requires an understanding of design, construction methods and the
resolution of many construction issues. Additionally, the design and construction of
basement structures requires an understanding of soil-structure interaction; a complex
subject in its own right.


The guide has been written for generalist structural engineers who have a basic
understanding of soil mechanics. It is assumed that a specialist geotechnical engineer
will be consulted on more complex ground problems. In such cases it will generally be
necessary to use the services of the specialist from the early stages of the project.
The economic benefi ts of basements are discussed in other publications[1]. Temporary
works are discussed, but their design is not specifi cally covered. Elements such as
embedded contiguous and secant piled walls, commonly used for temporary works and
often incorporated into permanent works, are covered in outline but their design is
outside the scope of this publication.
This guide does not cover seismic actions nor does it deal with retro-fi tting basements
into existing structures. Nor does it cover the use of precast walls, walls made using
insulating concrete formwork (ICF) or masonry walls, common in shallow domestic
basements, these are fully discussed elsewhere[2, 3, 4]. There are many examples of
basements constructed in the UK and beyond that provide a collection of case
histories. This guide brings together the salient features for design and construction
and references a number of documents that should be consulted for further detail.

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Shear Wall Design Manual ACI 318-14

Shear Wall Design Manual ACI 318-14

This manual describes the details of the shear wall design and stress check
algorithms used by the program when the user selects the ACI 318-14 design
code. The various notations used in this manual are described in Section 1.1.
The design is based on loading combinations specified by the user (Section
1.2). To facilitate the design process, the program provides a set of default load
combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building
type structures.


The program performs the following design, check, or analysis procedures in
accordance with ACI 318-14 and IBC 2012 requirements:
 Design and check of concrete wall piers for flexural and axial loads (Chapter
2)
 Design of concrete wall piers for shear (Chapter 2)
 Consideration of the boundary element requirements for concrete wall piers
using an approach based on the requirements of the code (Chapter 2)
 Design of concrete shear wall spandrels for flexure (Chapter 3)
 Design of concrete wall spandrels for shear (Chapter 3)
The program provides detailed output data for Simplified pier section design,
Uniform pier section design/check, and Section Designer pier section

design/check (Chapter 4).

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Theory of Arched Structures

Theory of Arched Structures

In modern engineering, as a basis of construction, arches have a diverse range of
applications. Today the theory of arches has reached a level that is suitable for most
engineering applications. Many methods pertaining to arch analysis can be found in
scientific literature. However, most of this material is published in highly
specialized journals, obscure manuals, and inaccessible books. This is not
surprising, as the intensive development of arch theory, particularly stability and
vibration have mostly occurred in the 1940s to the 1960s. Therefore, most engineers
lack the opportunity to utilize these developments in their practice.
The author has committed to the goal of presenting a book which encompasses
essential and tested methods on fundamental methods of arch analysis and equally
important problems.


This book contains an introduction, four parts (nine chapters), and an appendix.
The first part “Strength” contains three chapters. Chapter 1 is devoted to
fundamental methods of determining displacement of elastic structures in general
accompanied by examples specifically for arches.
Chapter 2 covers the analysis of three-hinged arches, while analysis of redundant
arches is considered in Chap. 3; in these chapters a special attention is dedicated to
the analysis of arched structures using influence lines.
Second part “Stability” contains two chapters. Chapter 4 provides analytical
methods of the stability of arches. These methods are based on the integration of
differential equations.

Chapter 5 presents Smirnov’s matrix method and approximate method. Approx-
imate method is based on the approximation of the arch by straight members with

subsequent application of the precise displacement method in canonical form.

The third part, “Vibration” contains two chapters. Chapter 6 deals with compu-
tation of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for arches. For analysis of the circular

uniform arch, Lamb’s differential equation is used; for analysis of parabolic
uniform arch the Rabinovich’s model is applied. The frequency of vibration for
arches with different ratio “rise/span” of an arch are presented on the basis of this
model.

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HIGHWAY ENGINEERING HANDBOOK Third Edition

HIGHWAY ENGINEERING HANDBOOK Third Edition

Improvements in highway design methods and practices are reflected in this Third Edition of the handbook.
The chapter on environmental issues has been updated throughout in view of ever-evolving regulations in that
area. The chapter on highway design includes information from the latest AASHTO “Green Book.” The trend
to replace bridges with spans up to about 60 ft (18 m) with stiffened special long-span corrugated steel and
precast concrete drainage structures is documented in the chapter on culverts. The chapter on safety systems
shows the trend to use median barriers over wider median widths than in the past. Metric units have been
added throughout the text and in tables and figures wherever feasible.

Highway projects have the potential to result in significant social, environmental, and eco-
nomic effects and, as a consequence, are the subject of a broad range of environmental reg-
ulation. Potential impacts include effects on

• Community cohesion
• Land use
• Minority and disadvantaged populations
• Surface and groundwaters
• Wetlands
• Coastal zone resources
• Navigable waters
• Wild, scenic, and recreational rivers
• Flood plains
• Water quality
• Important ecological resources, including wetlands and threatened and endangered
species
• Significant historic and archaeological resources
• Important visual resources
• Public parklands
• Utilities
• Prime agricultural lands
• Air quality
• Noise
• Energy
• Exposure to contaminated and hazardous materials
• Public health
Recent court rulings also suggest the need to consider potential effects on global climate
change and related ecological impacts.
The impacts of highway projects may be both temporary (short-term effects that
occur during construction of a facility) and permanent (long-term effects resulting from
the operation of a facility). Both short- and long-term impacts can be direct, indirect, or

cumulative.


The Highway Engineering Handbook has been developed by knowledgeable engineers to serve as a
comprehensive reference source for those involved in highway design. This handbook is broad in scope,
presenting information on topics ranging from environmental issues to value engineering, from the design of
culverts, lighting, and noise walls to the design of safety systems, retaining walls, and bridges. In addition,
such fundamental subjects as location and pavement design are fully discussed.
This volume should be useful to a wide range of personnel involved in highway design and construction,
including consulting engineers; engineers employed by departments of transportation in federal, state, and
local governments; those involved with turnpike authorities; and engineering educators. Both experienced
practitioners and serious students will find the information presented here useful and easy to apply. It should
enable the engineer to create a design that fulfills the requirements of the highway user: a safe, smooth,
durable, aesthetically pleasing, environmentally sensitive, and economical highway system.

Contributors to this handbook are experienced highway engineers, consultants, or educators. They are
leading authorities in their subject areas. The guiding principle of this book is to present practical information
that has direct application to situations encountered in the field. Efforts were made to coordinate the
information with that of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO).
Metric units are used where feasible to ease the transition to that system.
The material in this book follows a logical sequence. It begins with a discussion of environmental issues, a
fundamental consideration in modern highway design. This is followed by a chapter on location, design, and
traffic that includes extensive examples of typical standard treatments. A subject critical to building and
maintaining durable systems, pavement design and rehabilitation, is then presented. Following this, aspects of
bridge engineering are discussed to aid in the selection of bridge type and material for a durable design. The
essentials of culvert design are then offered, as well as information on the various culvert types available.
Next, a discussion of roadway safety addresses the latest options for providing for errant vehicles that leave
the traveled way. A wealth of information follows on signing and lighting highways, subjects that also are
closely related to highway safety. A comprehensive chapter next addresses the selection and design of
retaining walls and considers both generic and proprietary systems. Walls to reduce traffic noise and screen
unsightly areas are then considered. Finally, a chapter on value engineering and life cycle cost presents
fundamental insights into these areas, as well as application examples, to encourage cost-effective design.
The contributors and editors are indebted to their colleagues and a variety of sources for the information

presented. Credit is given in references throughout the text to the extent feasible.

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ACI DETAILING MANUAL 2004

ACI DETAILING MANUAL 2004

Structural drawings are those prepared by the A/E for the
owner or purchaser of engineering services. The structural
drawings and the project specifications form a part of the

contract documents. Structural drawings must contain an ad-
equate set of notes and all other essential information in a

form that can be quickly and correctly interpreted. These

drawings must convey definite instructions and show rein-
forcing bars and welded wire fabric. Structural and placing

drawings may be combined.’


The responsibility of the A/E is to furnish a clear statement
of design requirements to the detailer. The AIE’S project
specifications or structural drawings must not merely refer
the detailer to an applicable building code for information to

use in preparing the placing drawings. Instead, this informa-
tion shall be interpreted by the AE and shown in the form of

specific design details or notes for the detailer to follow.

Where omissions, ambiguities, or incompatibilities are dis-
covered, additional information, clarifications, or correc-
tions shall be requested by the detailer and provided by the

AIE. The A/E should require in the specifications that plac-
ing drawings be submitted for approval.

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Concrete Structures: Protection, Repair and Rehabilitation

Concrete Structures: Protection, Repair and Rehabilitation

Timetakes its toll on concrete structure, which creates a problem for the use of
concrete in a country’s infrastructure. Knowing the right principles and procedures

for the repair and rehabilitation of concrete structures is a critical element to fi nan-
cial success. Tearing down existing structures and rebuilding them from the ground

up can be cost prohibitive. Learning and perfecting the ways to make the most of
existing infrastructures are key elements when it comes to sustainable living and
safe living conditions.


Manypeople look at concrete and see nothing but, well, concrete. But the know-
ledgeable mind sees much more. Are there stress cracks in the surface? Were expan-
sion joints installed properly? Does the color of the concrete indicate a proper

curing time? Is the surface a slick, glasslike fi nish or a brushed fi nish? Is the material
fl aking away? Can existing fl aws be repaired in such a way to guarantee structural
integrity?
Mostpeople take concrete for granted. Yet, it is one of the strongest building
blocks of many bridges, highways, and other signifi cant infrastructure. Working with
a new installation of concrete is very different from repairing and rehabilitating
existing concrete structures. Both types of work have their rules of thumb and their
engineering elements. It often requires more experience to repair concrete than it
does to install it as new construction. This is what you will learn here.

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Finite Element Analysis

Finite Element Analysis

Finite Element Analysis was developed as a numerical method of stress analysis, but now it has been extended
as a general method of solution to many complex engineering and physical science problems. As it involves
lot of calculations, its growth is closely linked with the developments in computer technology. Now-a-days a
number of finite element analysis packages are available commercially and number of users is increasing. A
user without a basic course on finite element analysis may produce dangerous results. Hence now-a-days in
many M.Tech. programmes finite element analysis is a core subject and in undergraduate programmes many
universities offer it as an elective subject. The experience of the author in teaching this course to M.Tech
(Geotechnical Engineering) and M.Tech. (Industrial Structures) students at National Institute of Technology,
Karnataka, Surathkal (formerly, K.R.E.C. Surathkal) and to undergraduate students at SDM College of
Eingineering and Technology, Dharwad inspired him to write this book. This is intended as a text book to
students and as an introductory course to all users of finite element packages.


The author has developed the finite element concept, element properties and stiffness equations in first
nine chapters. In chapter X the various points to be remembered in discritization for producing best results is
presented. Isoparametric concept is developed and applications to simple structures like bars, trusses, beams
and rigid frames is explained thoroughly taking small problems for hand calculations. Application of this
method to complex problems like plates, shells and nonlinear analysis is introduced. Finally a list of
commercially available packages is given and the desirable features of such packages is presented.
The author hopes that the students and teachers will find it as a useful text book. The suggestions for
improvements are most welcome.

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Structural Concrete Theory and Design Sixth Edition

Structural Concrete Theory and Design Sixth Edition

The main objective of a course on structural concrete design is to develop, in the engineering stu-
dent, the ability to analyze and design a reinforced concrete member subjected to different types of

forces in a simple and logical manner using the basic principles of statistics and some empirical for-
mulas based on experimental results. Once the analysis and design procedure is fully understood,

its application to different types of structures becomes simple and direct, provided that the student
has a good background in structural analysis.



The material presented in this book is based on the requirements of the American Con-
crete Institute (ACI) Building Standard 318-14, International Building Code IBC-2012, American

society of Civil Engineers Load Standards ASCE 7-10, and AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Spec-
ifications. Also, information has been presented on material properties, including volume changes

of concrete, stress–strain behavior, creep, and elastic and nonlinear behavior or reinforced concrete.
Concrete structures are widely used in the United States and almost all over the world. The

progress in the design concept has increased in the last few decades, emphasizing safety, service-
ability, and economy. To achieve economical design of a reinforced concrete member, specific

restrictions, rules, and formulas are presented in the codes to ensure both safety and reliability of
the structure.

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Maintenance Manual for Roadways and Bridges

Maintenance Manual for Roadways and Bridges

Intended for persons early in their career in roadway and bridge maintenance, the Maintenance
Manual for Roadways and Bridges will assist them in understanding the various processes, methods,
and materials that are applied to maintain the bridge and highway system effectively. Also intended
to be a dynamic document, the manual will need to be updated as research and applications change

the relevant content sections. Historically, highway maintenance has encompassed personnel man-
agement, materials selection, equipment use, and application of methods to react to problems in

bridges and roadways, budgeting, and planning. The field is now evolving into a new engineering
science of its own, resulting from a synergistic combination of traditional civil engineering, industrial

engineering, business management, materials science, industrial psychology, and environmental sci-
ence. This manual is envisioned as the first step in documenting that transition; this first-generation

text will lead and guide the professional development of the engineering managers of roadway and
bridge maintenance in the beginning of the 21st century.


This manual, however, will need to be used in conjunction with your own agency’s maintenance
operation policy manual, maintenance standards publication, and organizational operation guides.
The effective engineering manager of maintenance in the 21st century will have to supplement the

education and experience brought to the maintenance position with self-study, continuing profes-
sional education, and on-the-job training in management principles and concepts.

Some illustrations and examples in this manual show a particular product, brand, trademark,
agency, or company. AASHTO does not endorse any manufactured product, licensed process, or other
proprietary item shown in this manual. All such illustrations are provided to make the accompanying
text more understandable, and no reference to such items in this manual should be construed as an
endorsement.

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Steel Structures Design and Practice

Steel Structures Design and Practice


Structural design emphasizes that the elements of a structure are to be proportioned
and joined together in such a way that they will be able to withstand all the loads
(load effects) that are likely to act on it during its service life, without excessive
deformation or collapse. Structural design is often considered as an art as well as
a science. It must balance theoretical analysis with practical considerations, such
as the degree of certainty of loads and forces, the actual behaviour of the structure
as distinguished from the idealized analytical and design model, the actual behaviour
of the material compared to the assumed elastic behaviour, and the actual properties
of materials used compared to the assumed ones.


Steel is one of the major construction materials used all over the world. It has
many advantages over other competing materials, such as high strength to weight
ratio, high ductility (hence its suitability for earthquake-resistant structures), and
uniformity. It is also agreen material in the sense that it is fully recyclable. Presently,
several grades and shapes of steel products exist.
Structural designers need to have a sound knowledge of structural steel behaviour,
including the material behaviour of steel, and the structural behaviour of individual
elements and of the complete structure. Unless structural engineers are abreast of
the recent developments and understand the relationships between the structural
behaviour and the design criteria implied by the rules of the design codes, they will
be following the coda1 rules rigidly and blindly and may even apply them incorrectly
in situations beyond their scope.

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MATERIALS FOR CIVIL AND CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERS

MATERIALS FOR CIVIL AND CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERS

A basic function of civil and construction engineering is to provide and maintain the
infrastructure needs of society. The infrastructure includes buildings, water treatment
and distribution systems, waste water removal and processing, dams, and
highway and airport bridges and pavements. Although some civil and construction
engineers are involved in the planning process, most are concerned with the design,
construction, and maintenance of facilities. The common denominator among these
responsibilities is the need to understand the behavior and performance of materials.
Although not all civil and construction engineers need to be material specialists,
a basic understanding of the material selection process, and the behavior of
materials, is a fundamental requirement for all civil and construction engineers performing
design, construction, and maintenance.


Material requirements in civil engineering and construction facilities are different
from material requirements in other engineering disciplines. Frequently, civil
engineering structures require tons of materials with relatively low replications of
specific designs. Generally, the materials used in civil engineering have relatively
low unit costs. In many cases, civil engineering structures are formed or fabricated
in the field under adverse conditions. Finally, many civil engineering structures are
directly exposed to detrimental effects of the environment.
The subject of engineering materials has advanced greatly in the last few decades.
As a result, many of the conventional materials have either been replaced by more efficient
materials or modified to improve their performance. Civil and construction engineers
have to be aware of these advances and be able to select the most cost-effective
material or use the appropriate modifier for the specific application at hand.

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Concrete Beams with Openings Analysis and Design

Concrete Beams with Openings Analysis and Design

This book compiles state-of-the-art information on the behavior, analysis, and design of concrete beams containing transverse openings.
Discussions include
the need, effects, and classification of openings as well as the general requirements for fulfilling design
pure bending, combined bending, and shear - illustrated with numerical examples


This book compiles state-of-the-art information on the behavior, analysis, and design of concrete beams containing transverse openings.
Discussions include
the need, effects, and classification of openings as well as the general requirements for fulfilling design
pure bending, combined bending, and shear - illustrated with numerical examples
torsion alone or in combination with bending and shear
large rectangular openings as well as opening size and location on beam behavior
methods for analyzing ultimate strength and serviceability requirements
effects of torsion in beams
large openings in continuous beams and their effects on possible redistribution of internal forces as well as guidelines and procedures for the design of such beams
effect of prestressing on the serviceability and strength of beams with web openings
design against cracking at openings and ultimate loads
Concrete Beams with Openings serves as an invaluable source of information for designers and practicing engineers, especially useful since little or no provision or guidelines are currently available in most building codes.

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MINIMUM REINFORCEMENT IN CONCRETE MEMBERS

MINIMUM REINFORCEMENT IN  CONCRETE MEMBERS

The central topic discussed in the committee is that of the minimum reinforcement in concrete
members. The minimum amount of reinforcement is defined as that for which "peak load at first
concrete cracking" and "ultimate load after steel yielding" are equal. In this way, any brittle behaviour
is avoided as well as any localized failure, if the member is not over-reinforced. In other words, there is
a reinforcement percentage range, depending on the size-scale, within which the plastic limit analysis
may be applied with its static and kinematic theorems.


Lange-Kornbak and Karihaloo compare experimental observations with approximate nonlinear
fracture mechanics predictions of the ultimate capacity of three-point bend, singly-reinforced concrete
beams without shear reinforcement. The previous model, based on a zero crack opening condition and
a fracture toughness accounting for slow crack growth, appears to be in good agreement with the
observed failure mechanisms, although the test results indicate that a non-zero crack opening condition
would improve the prediction, especially for lightly reinforced beams.
Ruiz, Elices and Planas introduce the so-called effective slip-length model, where the concrete
fracture is described as a cohesive crack and the effect of reinforcement bond-slip is incorporated.
Although the beams considered are of reduced size, the properties of the microconcrete were selected
so that the behaviour observed is representative of beams of ordinary size made of ordinary concrete.

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200 Questions and Answers on Practical Civil Engineering Works

200 Questions and Answers on Practical Civil Engineering Works

This book is intended primarily to arouse the interests of graduate engineers, assistant
engineers and engineers in the technical aspect of civil engineering works. The content of
the book mainly focuses on providing the reasons of adoption of the various current
practices of civil engineering. By understanding the underlying principles of engineering
practices, graduate engineers/assistant engineers/engineers may develop an interest in civil
engineering works. It is also intended that the book will serve as a useful source of
reference for practicing engineers.


During prestressing operation at one end, frictional losses will occur and the prestressing
force decreases along the length of tendon until reaching the other end. These frictional
losses include the friction induced due to a change of curvature of tendon duct and also the
wobble effect due to deviation of duct alignment from the centerline. Therefore, the
prestress force in the mid-span or at the other end will be greatly reduced in case the
frictional loss is high. Consequently, prestressing, from both ends for a single span i.e.
prestressing one-half of total tendons at one end and the remaining half at the other end is
carried out to enable a even distribution and to provide symmetry of prestress force along
the structure.

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Theory and Practice of Pile Foundations

Theory and Practice of Pile Foundations

Piles, as a popular foundation type, are frequently used to transfer super-
structure load into subsoil and stiff-bearing layer and to transfer impact of

surcharge owing to soil movement and/or lateral force into underlying lay-
ers. They are installed to cater for vertical, lateral, and/or torsional loading

to certain specified capacity and deformation criteria without compromis-
ing structural integrity. They are conventionally made of steel, concrete,

timber, and synthetic materials


We attempt to devise design methods that require fewer parameters
but resolve more problems. This has yielded a systematic approach to

model pile response in the context of load transfer models. This is sum-
marized in this book of 13 chapters. Chapter 1 presents an overview

of estimating soil shear modulus and strength using the conventional

standard penetration tests and cone penetration tests. Chapter 2 pro-
vides a succinct summary of typical methods for estimating bearing

capacity (including negative skin friction) of single piles and pile groups.

Chapter 3 recaptures pile–soil interaction models under vertical, lat-
eral, or torsional loading. Chapters 4 and 5 model the response of verti-
cally loaded piles under static and cyclic loading and time-dependent

behavior, respectively. The model is developed to estimate settlement
of large pile groups in Chapter 6. A variational approach is employed
to deduce an elastic model of lateral piles in Chapter 7, incorporating

typical base and head constraints. Plastic yield between pile and soil (pu-
based model) is subsequently introduced to the elastic model to capture

a nonlinear response of rigid (Chapter 8) and flexible piles (Chapter 9)

under static or cyclic loading. Plastic yield (hinge) of pile itself is fur-
ther incorporated into the model in Chapter 10.

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BUILDING STRUCTURES

BUILDING STRUCTURES

This book covers the topic of structures for buildings in a broad scope and from multiple
points of view. The primary purpose is to provide a reference for study for persons with
limited experience in the field and with interest in the general problems of design of
buildings. Presentations in the book are intended to be accessible to persons with limited
backgrounds in mathematics, science, and engineering.
The materials in this book are developed to serve two primary needs of readers. The
first is that of a text for study for courses within a collegiate program in building design.
The second is that of a study reference for preparation to take the exam for architectural
registration (ARE), as currently prepared by the National Conference of Architectural
Registration Boards (NCARB).


Because of the broad scope of the book, it is unlikely that its content can be covered in
a single course of instruction in a typical college-level term of 12–14 weeks. This depends,
however, on the type of course work. Traditional development of courses with example
computations for structural elements and systems requires considerable time if a range of
structural materials and types of structural elements are to be treated. If the purpose of
the study is limited to a general acquisition of understanding of basic concepts, issues,
and design problems—with no involvement in structural computations—more of the book
topics can be covered in a shorter time. The latter form of study may be undertaken in a
collegiate program and is the general case for those preparing for the ARE. A guide for
course instructors with suggestions for course organization and operation is provided on the
publisher’s website.

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Engineering Surveying Sixth Edition

Engineering Surveying Sixth Edition

The subject of engineering surveying continues to develop at a rapid pace and this has been reflected
in the many and substantial changes that have been made in updating and revising the previous edition.
The authors have taken the opportunity to examine in detail all the previous material making both minor
and major changes throughout. As always, decisions have to be made as to what should be retained that
is still current and relevant and to identify the material that needs to be cut to make way for new text to
describe the emerging technologies.
The subject of survey control is now treated in much greater depth. The chapter on traditional methods
still in current practice is followed by a whole new chapter on rigorous methods of control, that is, the
application of the technique of least squares in the determination of coordinates and their quality. This
topic was dropped from the fifth edition of this book but now reappears in a completely rewritten chapter
which reflects modern software applications of a technique that underlies much of satellite positioning and
inertial navigation as well as rigorous survey control.


>
Satellite positioning brings up to date the many advances that have been made in the development of
GPS and its applications, as well as looking to the changes now taking place with GLONASS and the
European GALILEO systems.
The chapter on underground surveying includes an enlarged section on gyrotheodolites which reflects
new techniques that have been developed and the application of automation in modern instrumentation.
The final chapter on mass data methods brings together substantial sections on simple applications of
photogrammetry with the revolutionary new technology of laser scanning by aerial and terrestrial means.

Inertial technology, once seen as an emerging standalone surveying technology, now reappears in a com-
pletely new guise as part of aircraft positioning and orientation systems used to aid the control of aerial

photogrammetry and laser scanners.

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Taking Off Quantities Civil Engineering

Taking Off Quantities Civil Engineering

The role of the quantity surveyor is changing rapidly and he is now expected to
provide project and financial management services in addition to his traditional
expertise. But whatever new skills are acquired, he must still possess a sound
knowledge of building construction and the ability to take-off quantities from
drawings.


This book, Taking-Off QuantitiesÐCivil Engineering, re-presents the
appendices from CESMM 3 Explained together with the first two chapters which
deal with general principles of measurement and how CESMM 3 works.
Although it is expected that civil engineering and quantity surveying students
will form the major part of the readership, interest has already been expressed by
practising engineers and surveyors on the need for a book providing examples of
civil engineering taking-off accompanied by a commentary on the measurement
techniques being used.

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