Structural Steelwork Analysis And Design

Structural Steelwork Analysis And Design

S. S. Ray

Preference :

The design of structural steel members requires many checks in a systematic, structured manner: this book has been written to provide
a step-by-step approach to this task with a view to achieving completeness of the design process in all aspects.

This manual covers the design of structural steelwork elements in a logical, step-by-step fashion. The text is backed up by numerous illustrations, design charts and tables, and refers throughout to the relevant codes of practice. A large number of worked examples cover almost all types of structural steelwork elements, including more advanced techniques.


Structural Steelwork Analysis And Design


Content :
  • Strength of Materials
  • Theory of Structure
  • Analysis of Structure: Worked Examples
  • Design of Structures
  • Design of Struts
  • Design of Ties
  • Design of Beams
  • Design of Composite Beams and Columns
  • Connections is Steelwork
  • Corrosion Protection 
  • Material Properties


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Prestressed Concrete Analysis and Design: Fundamentals

Prestressed Concrete Analysis and Design: Fundamentals

Antoine E. Naaman

Preference :

This book is for practicing engineers and researchers. It emphasizes the fundamental concepts of
analysis and design of prestressed concrete structures and provides students a
sufficiently strong basis for handling everyday design problems, and the tackling of
the more complex problems with confidence. A particular effort is made throughout
to synthesize and condense the essential information and to give an overview of the
directions in which the design is proceeding. Self-sufficient logical design flow
charts summarizing the step-by-step design procedure and containing all necessary
design equations are often presented. They reduce the burden of guesswork and
iterative tryout encountered in the design process, and are essential when
programmable calculators and computers are used. Important formulas and
equations are also condensed in tables for ready use. To provide a correlation with
reinforced concrete design and to help engineers already familiar with reinforced
concrete, the case of partially prestressed (or partially reinforced) concrete is often
addressed. An extensive selection of references is given at the end of each chapter.
An attempt was made to include not only necessary readings but also most recent
research conducted in the United States for up-to-date information. Specifications of
the 2002 ACI building code and relevant requirements of the AASHTO LRFD
specifications (1998 to 2002 interims) are integrated in the text. When appropriate
guidance is not available in the code, suggestions are made to accommodate at best
the intent of the code.

Whenever possible, widely accepted symbols, such as those used in the ACI code
are adopted and all symbols used in the text are defined and summarized for easy
reference in Appendix A. A consistent notation and sign convention is followed
throughout, allowing rigorous treatments when needed. This is essential, for
instance, in the case of continuous beams where the sign of secondary moments
cannot be visualized a priori and must be derived from the analysis.

Because of the inevitable future conversion from U.S. customary units to the
International System of Units (SI), all important tables, figures, and design
information, as well as dimensionally inconsistent equations, are given in dual units.
However, because the prestressed concrete industry is not on the verge of change
from U.S. customary units to SI units, all examples are treated in U.S. units to allow
students and professionals to keep in touch with current practice. In addition, SI
conversion factors and SI equivalents for some dimensionally inconsistent equations
used in various flow charts are given in Appendix B.

Compared to the first edition released in 1982, this second edition is
comprehensively expanded; it incoiporates a countless number of minute
improvements generated during more than twenty years of teaching and research
since the printing of the first edition. These have added broader knowledge and
technical wisdom to the material. Overall, more examples are given, numerous
clarifications are provided, the number of figures and photographs is augmented,
and, when relevant, remarks summarizing the author’s opinion that may differ Irom
codes are added. A chapter on strut-and-tie modeling has been added. The two main
U.S.

Prestressed Concrete Analysis and Design: Fundamentals


Content :
  • Chapter 1 Principle and Methods of Prestressing
  • Chapter 2 prestressing Materials: steel and concrete
  • Chapter 3 The Philosophy of Design
  • Chapter 4 Flexure Ultimate Strength Analysis and Design
  • Chapter 5 Flexure Working Stress Analysis and design
  • Chapter 6 Design for Shear and Torsion
  • Chapter 7 Deflection Computation and Control
  • Chapter 8 Computation of Prestress Losses
  • Chapter 9 Analysis and Design of Composite Beams
  • Chapter 10 Continuous Beams and Indeterminate
  • Chapter 11 Prestressed Concrete Slabs
  • Chapter 12 Analysis and Design of Tensile Members
  • Chapter 13 Analysis and Design of Compression Members
  • Chapter 14 Prestressed Concrete Bridges
  • Chapter 15 Strut-and-Tie Modeling 


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Prestressed Composite Section Design

Prestressed Composite Section Design



The design of a composite section depends upon the type of composite section, the
stages of prestressing, the type of construction and the loads. The type of construction
refers to whether the precast member is propped or unpropped during the casting of
the CIP portion. If the precast member is supported by props along its length during the
casting, it is considered to be propped. Else, if the precast member is supported only at
the ends during the casting, it is considered to be unpropped.

The advantages of composite construction are as follows.
1) Savings in formwork
2) Fast-track construction

3) Easy to connect the members and achieve continuity.

The prestressing of composite sections can be done in stages. The precast member
can be first pre-tensioned or post-tensioned at the casting site. After the cast-in-place
(cast-in-situ) concrete achieves strength, the section is further post-tensioned.
The grades of concrete for the precast member and the cast-in-place portion may be
different. In such a case, a transformed section is used to analyse the composite

section.



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Seismic Design of Reinforced and Precast Concrete Buildings

Seismic Design of Reinforced and Precast Concrete Buildings

ROBERT E. ENGLEKIRK

Preference :

This book is primarily about design, which, as I use the term, is the creative process
that seeks the proper blend of essential ingredients—specifically function, aesthetics,
economy, and, in the context of this book, seismic behavior. There exists no single
formula for creating a good design, for the design process involves making a set of
decisions on issues for which no absolutely right answer exists. Thus the designer is
continually seeking a comfortable rationally based design solution, and two identical
solutions are not likely to be produced even successively by the same constructive
designer.
Tools are essential to the completion of almost every task. I have tried to assemble,
in as concise a form as possible, the tools necessary to the pursuit of a good design.
From the extensive library of experimental efforts, I have selected representative
works and demonstrated how both strength and deformation limit states might be
predicted. Next, I review alternative design approaches and, in the process, simplify
and adapt them to specific types of bracing systems. Finally I describe how designs
might be comprehensively reviewed.
The focus of the book is concrete and the emphasis is on precast concrete. I
have limited the scope to the satisfaction of seismic behavior objectives because the
topic is complex and, though extensively studied and codified, not necessarily well
understood by the structural design profession. The fact that seismic design can be
reduced to an understandable level that can be creatively introduced into a building
program makes it an ideal vehicle to study the design process.
Concrete as a composite material provides a medium that encourages freedom.
The design of structures constructed using composite materials is not peculiar to the
materials selected for any combination of dissimilar materials must satisfy the same
basic fundamental laws and this is because equilibrium, compatibility, and adherence
to the appropriate stress-strain relationship must always be attained. Accordingly,
the choice of concrete as a vehicle should not be viewed as a constraint on the
applicability of the material contained herein.

Seismic Design of Reinforced and Precast Concrete Buildings


Content :
  • BASIC CONCEPTS
  • COMPONENT BEHAVIOR AND DESIGN
  • SYSTEM DESI
  • DESIGN CONFIRMATION


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Precast Concrete Structures, Second Edition

Precast Concrete Structures, Second Edition

Kim S. Elliott

Preference :

What makes precast concrete different from other forms of concrete construction? Whether
concrete is precast, that is statically reinforced or pretension (prestressed), is not always
apparent. It is only when we consider the role concrete will play in developing structural
characteristics that its precast nature becomes significant. The most obvious definition for
precast concrete is that it is concrete which has been prepared for casting, cast and cured in
a location which is not its final destination. The distance travelled from the casting site may
only be a few meters, where on-site precasting methods are used to avoid expensive haulage

(or VAT in some countries), or maybe thousands of kilometers, in the case of high-value-
added products where manufacturing and haulage costs are low. The grit basted architectural precast concrete in Figure 1.1 was manufactured 600 km from the site, whereas the
precast concrete columns, beams and walls traveled less than
60 m; wall panels have been stack-cast in layers between sheets of polythene adjacent to the
final building.
What really distinguishes precast concrete from cast in situ is its stress and strain
response to external (load-induced) and internal (autogenous volumetric changes) effects.
These are collectively known as ‘actions’ in the Eurocodes, and those mainly applicable
to precast concrete structures are the ‘keynote’ code EC0 (BS EN 1990 2002), the loading
or ‘actions’ code EC1 (BS EN 1991-1-1 2002) and the ‘concrete design’ code EC2 (BS EN
1992-1-1 2004).
A precast concrete element is, by definition, of a finite size and must therefore be joined
to other elements to form a complete structure. A simple bearing ledge or corbel will suffice,
as shown in Figure 1.3. But when thermal shrinkage or load-induced strains cause volu-
metric changes (and shortening or lengthening), the two precast elements try to move apart.
Interface friction at the mating surface prevents movement, but in doing so
creates a force F = μR which is capable of splitting both elements unless the section was
suitably reinforced. Figure 1.5a shows an example of where frictional forces
due to relative, unreinforced movement between precast slabs and beams caused spalling in
the beam. In other cases, spurious positive bending moments due to the restraint of relative
movement or end rotation have caused cracking in the soffit of slabs, or at a beam-to-column
corbel connection.
Flexural rotations of the suspended element (the beam) reduce the mating length lb (bearing
length), creating a stress concentration until local crushing at the top of the pillar (the column)
occurs, unless a bearing pad is used to prevent stress concentration. If the bearing is narrow, dispersal of stress from the interior to the exterior of the pillar causes lateral
tensile strain, leading to bursting of the concrete at some distance below the bearing unless the
section is suitably reinforced.

Precast Concrete Structures, Second Edition


Content :
  • What is precast concrete
  • Materials used in precast structures
  • Precast frame analysis
  • Precast concrete floors
  • Precast concrete beams
  • Precast concrete columns
  • Shear walls
  • Horizontal floor diaphragms
  • Joints and connections
  • Beam and column connections
  • Ties in precast concrete structures
  • Design exercise for 10-story precast skeletal frame


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Highway and Traffic Engineering in Developing Countries

Highway and Traffic Engineering in Developing Countries

Bent Thagesen

Preference :

The main purpose of this book is to meet a pronounced need for a textbook on planning,
design, construction, maintenance and management of roads and traffic in the traditional
developing countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Most of these countries, which
do not include the former Eastern Bloc countries, are situated in the tropics, where the
natural conditions are different from related conditions in temperate regions. Also, the
institutional issues and the financial problems confronting countries in the ‘South’ are
usually different from the state of affairs in the ‘North’. However, most existing
textbooks on highway engineering are geographically biased and based on experience
from industrialized countries with temperate climates, or they deal with specific
problems, for instance, soil stabilization or road building in the tropics.
The aim of this book is to give a comprehensive account of the wide range of both
technical and non-technical problems that may confront road engineers working in the
Third World without giving a detailed coverage of methods and techniques. The book is
designed primarily as a fundamental text for civil engineering students, but an additional
objective is to offer a broader view of the subject for practising engineers.
The book does not purport to address the safety problems associated with testing of
road materials and construction and maintenance of roads. Readers are expected to
establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine applicability of national
regulatory limitations prior to use of any method described in the book.
The text has been written with the assistance of a number of professionals with many
years of experience gained in Africa, the Middle East, Asia and Central America. The
names of the writers of the different chapters appear in the list of contributors, in the table
of contents and under the headings of the chapters. I am indebted to them all for their
contributions. My thanks also go to Wendy Taylor who helped with the preparation of
Chapter 24; to Poul Harboe and Per Kirkemann who wrote background material for
Chapter 25; to Arne Poulsen and Robin MacDonald who scrutinized various chapters; to
Dr. Richard Robinson who assisted with manuscript review, and to Sanne Knudsen who
did the proofreading.
Many of the illustrations have been reproduced from other publications. The sources
are quoted below the illustrations and at the end of each chapter. The cover was designed
by Ove Broo Sørensen. The preparation of the book has been financed partly by the
COWI-fund and the Danish International Development Assistance (Danida). This help is
gratefully acknowledged.

Highway and Traffic Engineering in Developing Countries


Content :
  • Highways and development
  • Highway Planning
  • Traffic Characteristics
  • Geometric Design
  • Drainage
  • Pavements
  • Construction
  • Maintenance
  • Development Assistance
  • Institutional Issues


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The Latest Methods of Construction Design

The Latest Methods of Construction Design

,Karel Petr, František Lopot
Martin Dub

Preference :

The book “The Latest Methods of Construction Design” has been created on the
basis of contributions of the 55th International Conference of Machine Design
Departments. This book is a follow-up to an earlier very successful book “Modern
Methods of Construction Design.”
This conference is one of the oldest central conferences, dealing with methods
and applications in the machine design. The main aim of the conference is to
provide an international forum where experts, researchers, engineers, and also
industrial practitioners, managers, and PhD students can meet, share their experiences,
and present the results of their efforts in the broad field of machine design
and related fields.
In the year 2014, the Department of Designing andMachine Components, Faculty
of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, whose members
deal above all with machine design, experimental methods and measuring, engineering
analyses, and products innovation, organized the 55th International Conference of
Machine Design Departments on the occasion of 150th anniversary of Faculty of
Mechanical Engineering (CTU in Prague). The mountain town of Beroun in Central
Bohemia was chosen for this celebratory event.
Since 1960, when the first conference was organized in Melnik by Brno University
of Technology, more than 50 years have passed. The main aim of the
conference was to providing an opportunity for professional experiences sharing
in the field of machine design, gears, and transmission mechanisms. The heads of
Mechanical Design Departments decided to organize these conferences annually
first at the national and later at the international level. The significance of the
conference has grown. Historically, the conferences were organized in different
places by different mechanical design departments of Czech and Slovak technical
universities:

The Latest Methods of Construction Design


Content :
  • Machine Design
  • Tribology
  • Hydraulics – Fluid Mechanisms
  • Engineering Analyses
  • Modern Material and Technology
  • Optimization and Design
  • Product Innovation
  • Experimental Methods and Measuring


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Repair of Concrete Structures to EN 1504

Repair of Concrete Structures to EN 1504


Preference :

Protection, repair and reinforcement (i.e. rehabilitation) of concrete structures requires relatively complicated design, dimensioning and control. The series of CEN standards under EN
1504 defines the principles of rehabilitation of concrete structures, which are damaged.
Furthermore, these standards specify guidelines for the choice of repair materials and systems that are appropriate for rehabilitation and maintenance of concrete structures.
These standards describe the main points of rehabilitation of a damaged concrete structure:
• Assessment of the registered state of a concrete structure
• Determination of the courses of damage
• Determination of the objective of the rehabilitation of a damaged concrete structure
• Choice of relevant principles for rehabilitation of a damaged concrete structure
• Choice of methods for rehabilitation of a damaged concrete structure
• Definition of the properties for repair materials and systems for rehabilitation of a dam-
aged concrete structure or its members
•Specification of requirements for the maintenance that should always follow rehabilitation of a damaged concrete structure or its members.

It is significant to note that the EN 1504 standards do not exclude other methods than those
mentioned in ENV 1504-9. However, application of such methods is limited to situations in
which their application is justified. However, documentation of the properties of the considered repair materials and systems and their characteristics is mandatory.

Repair of Concrete Structures to EN 1504


Content :


  • Scope
  • Related standards
  • Definitions and explanation of terms
  • Minimum requirements prior to rehabilitation
  • Purpose of rehabilitation
  • Choice of repair materials and systems
  • Conditional repair materials and systems
  • Maintenance after rehabilitation
  • Health, safety and environment


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Mechanical Damage and Crack Growth in Concrete

Mechanical Damage and Crack Growth in Concrete

Alberto Carpinteri

Preference :

Fracture mechanics technology has received considerable attention in recent years and has advanced to the stage where it can be employed in engineering design to prevent against the brittle fracture of high-strength materials and highly constrained structures. While research continued in an attempt to
extend the basic concept to the lower strength and higher toughness materials, the technology advanced rapidly to establish material specifications, design rules, quality control and inspection standards, code requirements, and regulations for safe operation. Among these are the fracture toughness testing procedures of the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM), the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes for the design of nuclear reactor components, etc.

Structural elements can fail in many different ways. The ultimate load condition may be reached by a combination of plastic flow, slow or fast crack propagation, depending on the material strength, ductility and toughness, and the size of the structural components. Highly constrained and/or
brittle materials may result in sudden crack formation and unstable crack propagation, whereas less constrained and/or more ductile materials are more likely to fail progressively by plastic yielding. In those situations, the presence of initial cracks do not play an important role in the failure process.
In many cases, however, the terminal condition is preceded by slow crack growth that continues even into the stage of global structure failure. There are other situations where slow crack growth may occur simultaneously with plastic flow and the final failure can still be catastrophic.
The current fracture mechanics literature contains a multitude of ideas, concepts, and criteria, that are not always consistent one with the other. Plastic Limit Analysis and Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics are two theories that address failure of structural components with very ductile and very
brittle behavior, respectively. They are unable to account for the slow crack growth and the softening behavior in concrete structures aside from the effect of material heterogeneity that is connected with the brittleness of concrete.
Mechanical Damage and Crack Growth in Concrete


Content :
  • Historical review: strength of materials and fracture mechanics
  • Fracture of concrete and brittle materials
  • Three-point bending of slab with edge crack
  • Center cracked slab in tension
  • Off-center compression of slab with edge crack
  • Steel reinforced beam with crack in bending
  • Panel with opening and diagonal cracks
  • Fracture testing and design


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Examples in Structural Analysis First Edition

Examples in Structural Analysis First Edition

W.M.C.McKenzie

Preference :

Prior to the development of quantitative structural theories in the mid-18th century and
since builders relied on an intuitive and highly developed sense of structural behavior.
The advent of modern mathematical modeling and numerical methods has to a large
extent replaced this skill with a reliance on computer-generated solutions to structural
problems. Professor Hardy Cross1 aptly expressed his concern regarding this in the
following quote:
‘There is sometimes cause to fear that the scientific technique, the proud servant of the
engineering arts, is trying to swallow its master.’
It is inevitable and unavoidable that designers will utilize continually improving
computer software for analyses. However, it is essential that the use of such software
should only be undertaken by those with the appropriate knowledge and understanding of
the mathematical modeling, assumptions and limitations inherent in the programs they use.
Students adopt a variety of strategies to develop their knowledge and understanding of
structural behavior, e.g. the use of:
• computers to carry out sensitivity analyses,
• physical models to demonstrate physical effects such as buckling, bending, the
development of tension and compression and deformation characteristics,
• the study of worked examples and carrying out analyses using ‘hand’ methods.
This textbook focuses on the provision of numerous fully detailed and comprehensive
worked examples for a wide variety of structural problems. In each chapter, a résumé of
the concepts and principles involved in the method being considered is given and
illustrated by several examples. A selection of problems is then presented which students
should undertake on their own prior to studying the given solutions.
Students are strongly encouraged to attempt to visualize/sketch the deflected shape of
a loaded structure and predict the type of force in the members prior to carrying out the
analysis; i.e.
(i) in the case of pin-jointed frames identify the location of the tension and
compression members,
(ii) in the case of beams/rigid-jointed frames, sketch the shape of the bending moment
diagram and locate points of contra-flexure indicating areas of tension and compression.
A knowledge of the location of tension zones is vital when placing reinforcement in
reinforced concrete design and similarly with compression zones when assessing the
effective buckling lengths of steel members.

Examples in Structural Analysis First Edition


Content :
  • Structural Analysis and Design 
  • Material and Section Properties 
  • Pin-Jointed Frames 
  • Beams
  • Rigid-Jointed Frames 
  • Buckling Instability 
  • Direct Stiffness Method
  • Plastic Analysis


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The Repair of Concrete Structures

The Repair of Concrete Structures 

 J.D.N.Shaw, S.C.Edwards, R.T.L.Allen

Preference :

Recent years have seen an increased emphasis on the repair and refurbishment of all
types of structures, in preference to demolition and rebuilding. Furthermore,
faults are now becoming evident in some structures erected during the period of
peak activity in the construction industry, some ten to twenty years ago. Concrete
structures are no exception. As a result, new materials and methods of concrete
repair have been developed, but much of this information has appeared in
isolated papers and articles. This book brings the details together and provides a
comprehensive guide to the subject. In addition to basic structural repairs, it
covers underwater work, leak sealing, repairs to concrete floors and the use of
surface coatings in the renovation and protection of concrete structures.

Cast in-situ concrete structures are hardly ever built under ideal conditions so,
for a variety of reasons, defects may occur as the concrete is being cast or very
soon afterwards. The cause may be unsuitable or defective materials, unsuitable
construction methods, poor workmanship or failure to appreciate the hazards
associated with a particular structural form or with prevailing weather
conditions. Some structural details, such as congested reinforcement or very
narrow sections, can greatly increase the risk of occurrence of defects.
Unsuitable concrete mix design can cause a variety of defects ranging from
variations in colour to severe honeycombing, and it must be remembered that a
mix that achieves satisfactory strength may not be satisfactory in other respects.

The Repair of Concrete Structures


Content :
  • Damage occurring during construction
  • Investigation and diagnosis
  • Cement and aggregates
  • Polymers for concrete repair
  • Repairs to cracked concrete
  • Spalled concrete: hand-applied repairs
  • Sprayed concrete
  • Large-volume repairs
  • Leak sealing
  • Surface coatings
  • Underwater repair
  • Repair of concrete floors


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Air Conditioning Engineering

Air Conditioning Engineering

W.P. Jones

Preference :

Air conditioning (of which refrigeration is an inseparable part) has its origins in the
fundamental work on thermodynamics which was done by Boyle, Carnot and others in the
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, but air conditioning as a science applied to practical
engineering owes much to the ideas and work of Carrier, in the United States of America,
at the beginning of this century. An important stepping stone in the path of progress which
has led to modern methods of air conditioning was the development of the psychrometric
chart, first by Carrier in 1906 and then by Mollier in 1923, and by others since.
The summer climate in North America has provided a stimulus in the evolution of air
conditioning and refrigeration which has put that semi-continent in a leading position
amongst the other countries in the world. Naturally enough, engineering enterprise in this
direction has produced a considerable literature on air conditioning and allied subjects.
The Guide and Data Book published by the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration
and Air Conditioning has, through the years, been a foremost work of reference but, not
least, the Guide to Current Practice of the Institution of Heating and Ventilation Engineers
has become of increasing value, particularly of course in this country. Unfortunately,
although there exists a wealth of technical literature in textbook form which is expressed
in American terminology and is most useful for application to American conditions, there
is an almost total absence of textbooks on air conditioning couched in terms of British
practice. It is hoped that this book will make good the dificiency.

Air Conditioning Engineering


Content :
  • The Need for Air Conditioning 
  • Fundamental Properties of Air and Water Vapour
  • Mixtures
  • The Psychrometry of Air Conditioning Processes
  • Comfort and Inside Design Conditions
  • Climate and Outside Design Conditions
  • The Choice of Supply Design Conditions 
  • Heat Gains from Solar and Other Sources
  • Cooling Load 
  • The Fundamentals of Vapour Compression
  • Refrigeration
  • Air Cooler Coils
  • The Rejection of Heat from Condensers and Cooling
  • Towers
  • Refrigeration Plant 
  • Automatic Controls
  • Vapour Absorption Refrigeration 
  • Airflow in Ducts and Fan Performance
  • Ventilation and a Decay Equation 
  • Filtration


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