Basics of Electrical Engineering

Basics of Electrical Engineering

Sanjeev Sharma

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The book provides a theory concerned with a large number of numerical problems. Questions related to the topic at the end of each chapter are also given. Solved question papers of previous years and important formulas are appended at the end of the book. Salient features More than 500 solved numerical problems. Problems of GATE and other competitive exams. Solutions and discussion on the UPSC problems and solutions. Standard tricks to solve the difficult problems that will help the students not only in the university exams but also in the competitive exams.

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Content :
  • Alternating Current Fundamentals and Circuit
  • Magnetic Circuits
  • Electrical Measuring Instruments and Measurements
  • Transformer
  • Polyphase Circuit
  • Electromechanical Energy Conversion
  • Synchronous Machine
  • Polyphase Induction Motor
  • SinglePhase IMotor
  • Solved Questions Papers of Previous Years
  • Objective Questions for Practical Quiz
  • Electromagnetism


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Mechanical Engineering Principles, Second Edition

Mechanical Engineering Principles, Second Edition

John Bird, Carl Ross

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Mechanical Engineering Principles 2nd Edition aims to broaden the reader’s knowledge of the basic principles that are fundamental to mechanical engineering design
and the operation of mechanical systems. Modern engineering systems and products still rely
upon static and dynamic principles to make them work. Even systems that appear to be entirely electronic have a physical presence governed by the principles of statics. In this second edition of Mechanical Engineering Principles, a chapter has been added on revisionary mathematics; it is not possible to progress in engineering studies without a reasonable knowledge of mathematics,
a fact that soon becomes obvious to both students and teachers alike. It is therefore hoped that this chapter on basic mathematics revision will be helpful and make the engineering studies more comprehensible. Minor modifications and some further worked problems have also been added throughout the text. Free Internet downloads of full solutions to the further
problems and a PowerPoint presentation of all the illustrations contained in the text is available
For clarity, the text is divided into four parts, these being:

  • Part 1 Revision of Mathematics
  • Part 2 Statics and strength of materials
  • Part 3  Dynamics
  • Part 4 Heat transfer and fluid mechanics

Mechanical Engineering Principles 2nd Edition is suitable for the following:
(i) National Certificate/Diploma courses in Mechanical Engineering
(ii) Undergraduate courses in Mechanical, Civil, Structural, Aeronautical & Marine
Engineering, together with Naval Architecture
(iii) Any introductory/access/foundation course involving Mechanical Engineering Principles
at University, and Colleges of Further and Higher education.
Although pre-requisites for the modules covered in this book include Foundation Certificate/ diploma, or similar, in Mathematics and Science, each topic considered in the text is presented in a way that assumes that the reader has little previous knowledge of that topic.

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Content :
  • Revisionary Mathematics
  • The effects of forces on materials
  • Tensile testing
  • Forces acting at a point
  • Forces in structures
  • Forces, tensile testing and beams
  • Dynamics
  • Linear and angular motion
  • Simple harmonic motion
  • Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics


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Electrical Installation Work, Fifth Edition

Electrical Installation Work, Fifth Edition

BRIAN SCADDAN

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This book is intended for the trainee electrician who is working towards NVQs, gaining competences in various aspects of installation work. It covers both installation theory and practice in compliance with the 16th edition of the IEE Wiring Regulations, and also deals with the electrical
contracting industry, the environmental effects of electricity and basic electronics.
Much of the material in this book is based on my earlier series, Modern Electrical Installation for Craft Students, but it has been rearranged and augmented to cater better for student-centred learning programmes. Self assessment questions and answers are provided at the ends of chapters.

RCD RCBO operation
Where RCDs/RCBOs are fitted, it is essential that they operate within set parameters. The RCD testers used are designed to do just this, and the basic tests required are as follows:
1 Set the test instrument to the rating of the RCD.
2 Set the test instrument to half rated trip.
3 Operate the instrument and the RCD should not trip.
4 Set the instrument to deliver the full rated tripping current of the RCD.
5 Operate the instrument and the RCD should trip out in the required time.

Firstly, RCDs are not fail safe devices, they are electro-mechanical in operation and can malfunction. Secondly, general purpose RCDs are manufactured in ratings from 5 mA to 100 mA and have many uses. Let us first deal with RCDs rated at 30 mA or less. The accepted lethal level of shock current is 50 mA and hence RCDs rated at 30 mA or less would be appropriate for use where shock is an increased risk. BS 7671 indicates that RCDs of 30 mA or less should be used in the following situations:
1 To protect circuits supplying hand held equipment outside the equipotential
zone.
2 To protect all socket outlet circuits in a TT system installation.
3 To protect all socket outlets in a caravan park.
4 To provide supplementary protection against Direct contact.
5 For fixed current using equipment in bathrooms.

Electrical Installation Work, Fifth Edition


Content :
  • Basic information and calculations
  • Electricity
  • Resistance, current and voltage, power and energy
  • Electromagnetism
  • Capacitors and capacitance
  • Resistance, inductance and capacitance in installation work
  • Three-phase circuits
  • Motors and generators
  • Cells and batteries
  • Illumination and ELV lighting
  • Electricity, the environment and the community
  • Health and safety
  • The electrical contracting industry
  • Installation materials and tools
  • Installation circuits and systems
  • Earthing and bonding
  • Circuit and design


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Construction Management and Design of Industrial Concrete and Steel Structures

Construction Management and Design of Industrial Concrete and Steel Structures

Mohamed A. El-Reedy

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The development of any country depends on the rate of industrial growth. Currently, there is a race in industrial projects worldwide. The development of the industry depends on the development of the energy reserve by investment in projects of oil and gas exploration, onshore and offshore, which
require new facilities or rehabilitation of existing facilities. At the same time, there are projects that are running in parallel to deliver electricity from electrical power stations or through nuclear power plants.
In this book, the term industrial structures means all the reinforced concrete and steel structures from a small factory to a nuclear plant. This book will be an overview of industrial project management, design, construction, and eventually providing a maintenance plan. Industrial projects, in most cases, are huge and can cost a billion dollars for one project, so the client, engineering firm, and contractor are in the same boat until they achieve project success through a strong management system and technical competence.
Therefore, this book discusses all items that interface among these main three partners.
In these types of projects, all the engineering disciplines are working together, but, unfortunately, the structural or civil engineers are usually the last ones to obtain the exact data from the other disciplines and the first ones to start on site. Therefore it is a challenge for the structural engineers to work
fast and efficiently in this type of project. This book focuses on the structural engineering of all of these projects. The aim of this book is to provide up-to-date methodology and industry technical practice and guidelines to design, construct, and maintain the reinforced concrete and steel structures in these industrial projects. The essential processes of protection, repair, and strengthening of the industrial structures necessitated by deterioration or a change in the mode of operation are illustrated in this book. It is intended to be a guidebook to junior and senior engineers who work in design, construction, repair, and maintenance of reinforced concrete and steel structures and to assist them through all of the stages of industrial projects.

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Content :
  • Introduction
  • Construction Management for Industrial Projects
  • Loads on Industrial Structures
  • Design of Foundations for Vibrating Equipment
  • Storage Tank Design
  • Static Equipment Foundation Design
  • Steel Structures in Industry
  • Assessment of Existing Structures
  • Methods of Protecting Foundations from Corrosion
  • Repair of Industrial Structures
  • Economic Study for Maintenance Plan
  • Overview of Fixed Offshore Structures
  • Soil Investigation and Pile Design


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Site Analysis

Site Analysis

Smid Book

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This book is divided into four parts. Part I, Process and Tools, contains Chapter 1 (Shaping
the Built Environment) and Chapter 2 (Visualization of Spatial Information). The first
chapter summarizes the site planning and design process and places site planning and design
in the broader context of sustainable planning and development. The second chapter
addresses the basic principles of mapping and graphic communication in site planning and
design.
Part II, Site Selection and Programming, also has two chapters. Chapter 3 (Site
Selection) examines the goals and methods of site suitability analysis leading to the comparison
and selection of sites. Chapter 4 (Programming) focuses on programming methods
such as user surveys, focus groups, and market analyses.
Part III, Site Inventory and Analysis, is the core of the book. Chapter 5 (Site Inventory:
Physical Attributes) and Chapter 6 (Site Inventory: Biological Attributes) cover a wide
array of physical and biological attributes that, depending on the unique features of the site
and the program, may be analyzed during the site planning and design process. Chapter 7
(Site Inventory: Cultural Attributes) concentrates on documenting relevant cultural,
historic, and regulatory attributes. Chapter 8 (Site Analysis: Integration and Synthesis)
describes howsite opportunities and constraints for specific project programs are identified
and documented in support of the subsequent phases of the site planning and design
process.
The last three chapters of the book are in Part IV, Design and Implementation. Chapter 9
(Conceptual Design) addresses the spatial organization of the programmed uses and
activities on the site. Chapter 10 (Design Development) addresses the spatial articulation
of the organizational framework established in the conceptual design phase. This chapter
explores design theory and ‘‘form-based’’ development regulations, which communities
are increasingly employing to guide development and shape changes to the built environment.
Chapter 11 (Project Implementation), the book’s final chapter, addresses the
permitting and approval processes, techniques for mitigating development impacts, and
construction documentation and contract administration. The book concludes with an
Appendix and a Glossary. The Appendix lists both commercial, non-profit, and government
resources for data and other relevant planning and design information.

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Content :
  • Shaping the built environment
  • Visualization of spatial information
  • Site selection and programming
  • Site selection
  • Programming
  • Site inventory: physical attributes
  • Site inventory: biological attributes
  • Site inventory: cultural attributes
  • Site analysis: integration and synthesis
  • Conceptual design
  • Design development
  • Project implementation


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Electric Motors and Drives. Fundamentals, Types and Applications

Electric Motors and Drives. Fundamentals, Types and Applications

Austin Hughes and Bill Drury Book

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The book covers all of the most important types of motor and drive, including conventional and brushless d.c., induction motor, synchronous motors of all types, switched reluctance, and stepping motors (but not highly customized or application-specific systems, e.g. digital hard disk drives). The induction motor and induction motor drives are given most weight, reflecting their dominant market
position in terms of numbers. Conventional d.c. machines are deliberately introduced early on, despite their declining importance: this is partly because understanding is relatively easy, but primarily because the fundamental principles that emerge carry forward to other motors. Similarly, d.c. drives are tackled first because experience shows that readers who manage to grasp the principles of the d.c. drive will find this knowhow invaluable in dealing with other more challenging types.

Electric motors are so much a part of everyday life that we seldom give them a second thought. When we switch on an ancient electric drill, for example, we confidently expect it to run rapidly up to the correct speed, and we don’t question how it knows what speed to run at, or how it is that once enough energy has been drawn from the supply to bring it up to speed, the power drawn falls to a very low
level. When we put the drill to work it draws more power, and, when we finish, the power drawn from the mains reduces automatically, without intervention on our part.

The humble motor, consisting of nothing more than an arrangement of copper coils and steel laminations, is clearly rather a clever energy converter, which warrants serious consideration. By gaining a basic understanding of how the motor works, we will be able to appreciate its potential and its limitations, and (in later chapters) see how its already remarkable performance is dramatically enhanced by the addition of external electronic controls.
This chapter deals with the basic mechanisms of motor operation, so readers who are already familiar with such matters as magnetic flux, magnetic and electric circuits, torque, and motional e.m.f. can probably afford to skim over much of it. In the course of the discussion, however, several very important general principles and guidelines emerge. These apply to all types of motor and are summarized in section 9. Experience shows that anyone who has a good grasp of these basic principles will be well equipped to weigh the pros and cons of the different types of motor, so all readers are urged to absorb them before tackling other parts of the book.

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Content :
  • Electric Motors – The Basics
  • Introduction to Power Electronic
  • Conventional D.C. Motors
  • D.C. Motor Drives
  • Induction Motors – Rotating Field,
  • Induction Motors – Operation from 50/60 Hz Supply
  • Variable Frequency Operation of Induction Motors
  • Inverter-fed Induction Motor Drives
  • Synchronous and Brushless Permanent Magnet Machines and Drives
  • Stepping and Switched reluctance Motors
  • Motor/Drive Selection
  • Introduction to Closed-loop Control
  • Induction Motor Equivalent Circuit


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Electricity Retail Wheeling Handbook Second Edition

Electricity Retail Wheeling Handbook Second Edition

John M. Studebaker

Preference :

As with any undertaking, logical procedure must be established. In this publication, the discussion of retail wheeling of electricity is the predominate theme. However, before we discuss and analyze the retail wheeling process, we must understand the basics of electricity it relates to generation, transmission, and delivery to the retail customer. To accomplish this end, basic overview of regulation processes and electricity tariff schedule provisions is included in the following section. Please read this section with great care it provides the foundation upon which will be built the understanding of retail wheeling of electricity. Remember that successful retail wheeling strategy will require an understanding how the electricity process functions.

The purpose of this publication, from an electricity purchaser’s viewpoint, is to sort out all of the potential pitfalls and opportunities that both currently well in the future may reduce or increase electricity costs. accurately assess electricity costs, the purchaser must have at least minimal understanding of how electricity flows from where it originates to where the purchaser is located, and how costs are accumulated in the process.
There are many publications that currently address specific areas of retail wheeling of electricity in one manner or another. There are also many seminars that address various aspects of retail wheeling of electricity. So why add one more publication to what appears to be an already
cluttered field?
Most publications well seminars address specific areas of the retail wheeling process but may not tie all of the loose ends together. Also, it seems that the assumption exists that everyone knows all of the
basics, and therefore this allows publications and seminars to concentrate on only one or two specific areas of information. This publication is intended to be of value to an electricity purchaser that needs to know the best and least costly method of obtaining electricity at their facility based upon their usage characteristics for now well in the future. It will also address how to determine the best
source of electricity pre- or post-deregulation that ensures reliability well cost competitiveness.

Electricity Retail Wheeling Handbook Second Edition


Content :
  • Understanding Electric Utility Basics
  • Electricity. An Overview
  • Regulation of Electricity
  • Developing Strategy for Reducing Electricity Costs
  • Electricity Retail Wheeling-The Process Involved
  • Electricity Retail Wheeling Process
  • The Retail Wheeling Transaction
  • The Retail Wheeling Contract Process.
  • Electricity Retail Wheeling in Action
  • Where Do We Go From Here


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Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, Sixteenth Edition

Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, Sixteenth Edition

D. J. Warn, M. A. Laughton 

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For ease of use, this edition has been divided into the following subject sections: general principles; materials and processes; control, power electronics, and drives; environment; power generation; transmission and distribution; power systems; sectors of electricity use. New chapters and major revisions include: industrial instrumentation; digital control systems; programmable controllers; electronic power conversion; environmental control; hazardous area technology; electromagnetic compatibility; alternative energy sources; alternating current generators; electromagnetic transients; power system planning; reactive power plant and FACTS controllers; electricity economics and trading; power quality. *An essential source of techniques, data and principles for all practicing electrical engineers *Written by an international team of experts from engineering companies and universities *Includes a major new section on control systems, PLCs, and microprocessors.

The organization of the book has been recast in the following format with the aim of facilitating quick access to information.
General Principles (Chapters 1±3) covers basic scientific background material relevant to electrical engineering. It includes chapters on units, mathematics and physical quantities, electrotechnology and network analysis.

Materials & Processes (Chapters 4±10) describes the fundamentals and range of materials encountered in electrical engineering in terms of their electromechanical, thermoelectric and electromagnetic properties. Included are chapters on the fundamental properties of materials, conductors and superconductors, semiconductors, insulation, magnetic materials, electroheat and materials processing and welding and soldering.

Control (Chapters 11±16) is a largely new section with six chapters on electrical measurement and instruments, industrial instrumentation for process control, classical control systems theory, fundamentals of digital control, microprocessors and programmable controllers.
Power Electronics and Drives (Chapters 17±20) reflect the significance of up to 50% of all electrical power passing through semiconductor conversion. The subjects included of greatest importance to industry, particularly those related to the area of electrical variable speed drives, comprise power semiconductor devices, electronic power conversion, electrical machine drives, motors and
actuators.

Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, Sixteenth Edition


Content :
  • General Principles
  • Materials & Processes
  • Control
  • Power Electronics and Drives
  • Environment
  • Power Generation
  • Transmission and Distribution
  • Power Systems
  • Sectors of Electricity Use


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Power System Engineering: Planning, Design, and Operation of Power Systems and Equipment

Power System Engineering: Planning, Design, and Operation of Power Systems and Equipment

Juergen Schlabbach

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This book deals with nearly all aspects of power system engineering starting from general approach such as load estimate and the selection of suitable system and substation topology. Details for the design and operational restrictions of the major power system equipment, like cables, transformers and overhead lines are also dealt with. Basics for load - fl ow representation of equipment and short - circuit analysis are given as well as details on the grounding of system neutrals and insulation coordination. A major chapter deals with the procedures of project definition, tendering and contracting.

The purpose of this book is to serve as a reference and working book for engineers working in practice in utilities and industry. However, it can also be used for additional information and as a hand - book in post - graduate study courses at universities. The individual chapters include theoretical basics as far as necessary but focus mainly on the practical application of the methods as presented in the relevant sections. Carrying out engineering studies and work moreover requires the application of the latest edition of standards, norms and technical recommendations.

Examples are given based on projects and work carried out by the authors during the last years. The preparation of this book was finalised in March 2008 and reflects the actual status of the techniques, norms and standards. All comments stated in this book are given to the best of knowledge, based on the comprehensive technical experience of the authors. Extracts from IEC 60905:1978 and DIN - norms with VDE - classifi cation are permitted for this edition of the book by licensee agreement 252.007 of DIN (Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V.) and VDE (Verband der Elektrotechnik Elektronik Informationstechnik e.V.) on 08.11.2007.

An additional permission is required for other usages and editions. Standards are only to be applied based on their actual issues, available from VDE - Verlag GmbH, Bismarckstr. 33, D - 10625 Berlin, Beuth - Verlag GmbH, Burggrafenstr. 6, D - 10787 Berlin or the national standard organisation. The authors would like to thank Dipl. - Ing. Christian Kley and canding. Mirko Zinn, University of Applied Sciences in Bielefeld, for spending time and efforts to draw the figures and diagrams. Special thanks are addressed to the staff of Wiley - VCH for the very good cooperation during the preparation of this book. Our thanks are also extended to our families for their patience during the uncounted hours of writing the book.

Power System Engineering: Planning, Design, and Operation of Power Systems and Equipment


Content :
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Power System Load 
  • 3. Planning Principles and Planning Criteria
  • 4. Economic Consideration and Loss Evaluation
  • 5. Topologies of Electrical Power Systems
  • 6. Arrangement in Gridstations and Substations 
  • 7. Transformers
  • 8. Cable Systems
  • 9. Overhead Lines
  • 10. Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS)
  • 11. Load-Flow and Short-Circuit Current Calculation
  • 12. Connection of ""Green-Energy"" Generation to Power Systems
  • 13. Protection of Equipment and Power System Installations
  • 14. Overvoltages and Insulation Coordination
  • 15. Influence of Neutral Earthing on Single-Phase Short-Circuit Currents
  • 16. Tendering and Contracting


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