# Introduction to Thermal and Fluid Engineering

## Introduction to Thermal and Fluid Engineering

Aziz, Abdul; Kraus, Allan D.; Welty, James R

Preference :

This text treats the disciplines of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer, in that
order, as comprising what are generally referred to as the thermal/fluid sciences. The study
of these separate and independent disciplines has been a standard part of the mechanical
and chemical engineering curricula for decades. Other engineering majors have commonly
taken one or more of these subjects but, generally, not all three.
The first component, classical thermodynamics, involves the interaction of work, heat,
and the change in the energy level of a system as it undergoes a change between equilibrium
states. The laws of thermodynamics form a framework by which these state changes are
evaluated and related to measurable properties, most notably temperature. Knowledge of
the thermodynamic limits of processes is essential to the evaluation of energetic systems
and all engineers need such knowledge upon occasion.

The second component, fluid mechanics, treats the change of mass, energy, and momen-
tum associated with the movement of fluids. Mass flow into and out of an open system is

an important part of the overall energy balance for the system. Large, multicomponent sys-
tems such as municipal water supplies, petroleum refineries, and manufacturing facilities

involve numerous pipes, ducts, and other passageways through which fluids are trans-
ported and fluid flow analyses are important for describing the rates at which energetic

processes take place.
The third component of the thermal/fluid sciences is heat transfer. Heat transfer, as one
knows from a study of introductory physics is accomplished by conduction, convection, and
radiation. Each of these modes enables one to evaluate the rate at which heat is transported
between sites that are at different temperatures. Convection heat transfer is intimately
involved with fluid motion and is, therefore, directly coupled to a knowledge of fluid
mechanics.
As mentioned, thermodynamic analysis will determine the limiting equilibrium states

that a process may experience. The project design of an energetic process requires, in addi-
tion to a listing of the appropriate thermodynamic limits, knowledge of the rates at which

the process progresses from its initial to its final states. For example, in the case of a heat
exchanger, the cross-sectional area of the unit is evaluated by the rate of mass throughput
as determined by using fluid mechanics while the length of the unit is determined from the

rate of heat transfer. Introduction to Thermal and Fluid Engineering

Content :
• The Thermal/Fluid Sciences: Introductory Concepts
• Thermodynamics: Preliminary Concepts and Definitions
• Energy and the First Law of Thermodynamics
• Properties of Pure, Simple Compressible Substances
• Control Volume Mass and Energy Analysis
• The Second Law of Thermodynamics
• Entropy
• Gas Power Systems
• Vapor Power and Refrigeration Cycles
• Mixtures of Gases, Vapors, and Combustion Products
• Introduction to Fluid Mechanics
• Fluid Statics
• Control Volume Analysis—Mass and Energy Conservation
• Newton’s Second Law of Motion
• Dimensional Analysis and Similarity
• Viscous Flow
• Flow in Pipes and Pipe Networks
• Fluid Machinery
• Forced Convection—Internal Flow